Jihočeská univerzita v Českých Budějovicích Zemědělská fakulta. Dairy and Beef Nutrition. Teacher: Prof. Doc., Ing. Čermák Bohuslav, CSc. Student: Ing. Ciobotaru Oana. Česke Budějovice 2012. INTRODUCTION.
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Teacher: Prof. Doc., Ing. Čermák Bohuslav, CSc.
Student: Ing. Ciobotaru Oana
The main components of food are water and dry matter. The dry matter consists of organic material and inorganic material.
Animals require energy for maintenance, growth, work and for the production of milk and wool. Feeds are evaluated in terms of the amount of energy an animal can obtain from them. The digestible energy (DE) is the gross (total) amount of energy in the hay and grain fed an animal less the amount lost in the feces. Energy is usually reported in megacalories (Mcal) per kilogram.
Proteins are composed of amino acids, which contain carbohydrates, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. Ten amino acids are essential to monogastrics, whereas ruminants only need a source of nitrogen, or a poor quality protein, from which the microbes in the rumen can then construct the essential amino acids. Protein is absolutely essential for growth, reproduction and maintenance in monogastrics and ruminants. Mature animals require less protein on the basis of percentage of the feed offered than young ones. Excess protein is utilized as an energy source.
The cow is our basic production unit and most important employee of the beef enterprise.
To get the most out our production unit, let’s review the job expectations and responsibilities the cow has to fulfill if she wants to stick around. Our expectations of our bovine employees are to maintain her bodyweight-body condition, deliver a live calf, start the rebreeding process promptly, get pregnant, maintain her pregnancy, and nurse the calf that is already on her side until weaning. That’s quite a load of tasks for one cow to accomplish.
Lactation cycle phases with corresponding changesin milk production, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage,DM intake, and body weight.