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Sex, Gender, and Gender Role Socialization. Chapter 3. Sex. Refers to the physical and biological Includes: Chromosomal xx and xy Hormonal Testosterone, Estrogen And…. Sex. Anatomical. Gender and Gender Identity. Gender : Social Psychological Cultural

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Sex, Gender, and Gender Role Socialization


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Sex, Gender, and Gender Role Socialization Chapter 3

    2. Sex • Refers to the physical and biological • Includes: • Chromosomal • xx and xy • Hormonal • Testosterone, Estrogen • And…

    3. Sex Anatomical

    4. Gender and Gender Identity • Gender : • Social • Psychological • Cultural • Masculinity and Femininity • Gender identity : • View of herself or himself as: • Feminine or Masculine

    5. Gender Characteristics • Sex—Ascribed status • Gender—Achieved status • Gender characteristics: • Physical • Emotional • Behavioral

    6. Social Construction of Gender • Expectations regarding proper: • Behavior • Attitudes • Activities • Roles in work • Reaction to others • Little Girl comments on gender roles • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CU040Hqbas&feature=related • Gender Roles

    7. Gender Role Socialization • “...a lifelong process people learn: • Values • Attitudes • Motivations • Behavior • Considered appropriate by their culture”

    8. Gender Role Socialization • Children learn proper behavior • Parents/family • Peer groups • School • Media

    9. 9/19 Masculine Scripts • Man vs Woman • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1ferw30pUo&feature=player_detailpage • No sissy-stuff – Distance themselves from the feminine • Big wheel-Occupationally and/or financially successful • Sturdy oak-Confident and self-reliant • Give ‘em hell-Do what is necessary to “make it”

    10. Feminine Scripts • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYhCn0jf46U • Dove Transformation • Attractive • Not too competitive • Good listener • Adaptable • Good mother • Put needs of others first • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wjg_pmdX8no&feature=related • Female to Male and Back Again

    11. Pink& BlueTelling the Boys from the Girls • Smithsonian • http://www.smithsonianmag.com/multimedia/photos/?c=y&articleID=119483704&page=1

    12. Theories on Gender Inequality Functionalist Theory Conflict Theory

    13. Structural Functionalist Perspective • Parsons and Bales (1956): • Women--Expressive roles • Men--Instrumental roles

    14. Structural Functionalist Perspective • Women give birth & nurse children • “Natural” to provide care • Prepare meals • Maintain home • Men • Financial support • Economically dominant roles in family • Budget • Spending Decisions • Bank Account

    15. Structural Functionalist Perspective • Pre-industrial society=Gender based division of labor • Women nursed and cared for children • Men responsible for material needs • Industrialization—Traditional division of labor less functional • Belief system remains

    16. Conflict Theory • Gender inequality=Power • Men dominate women • Economic • Political • Social resources • Powerful haveno incentive: • To give up power or • Share it

    17. Conflict Theory • Continued Domination: • Requires belief system (ideology) • Supports gender inequality • Two beliefs • Women-Inferior outside the home • Women-More valuable in the home 

    18. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective • Gender & gender roles learned through socialization (process) • Women socialized into Expressive roles • Men socialized into Instrumental roles

    19. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Micro level behavior expressing & maintaining dominance (research) • Men more likely than women to: • Change topic of conversations • Ignore topics chosen by women • Minimize ideas of women • Interrupt women

    20. Research • Rubin, Provenzano, and Luria, (1974) • First 24 hours after birth • Parents described girls & boys differently

    21. Research • “Boy” babies described as: • Alert • Strong • Firm • “Girl” babies described as: • Less attentive • Weak • Fragile

    22. Research • Jacklin (1984) • Boys given blocks & tools • Girls given dolls & easy-bake ovens • McHale et al., (1990) • Boys mow lawn • Girls do dishes & babysit

    23. Other Influences on Gender Socialization • Peers • Schools • Mass Media • Religion

    24. Media and Socialization • Typical day: 47% of babies & toddlers ages 0-1 watch TV or DVDs • Those who watch average nearly 2 hours (1:54)/day • Nearly 1 in 3 (30%) have TV in bedrooms • (Knowledge Networks survey of 1,384 parents of children ages 0 to 8 years old, May 27-June 15, 2011 )

    25. Media and Socialization • Children ages 6-23 months (2005) • 19% TV in their bedrooms • Children ages 6-23 months (2011) • 29% TV in their bedrooms

    26. Media and Socialization • Two-thirds (65%) of 0 to 8-year-olds watch TV at least once every day • 37% of 0-1 year-olds • 73% of 2- to 4-year-olds • 72% of 5- to 8-year-olds • What are they learning?

    27. Media and Socialization 1. Learn about gender identity from news media? 2. Learn from video games? 3. Gender messages from movies? What are the consequences? Personally and Socially?