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Session Five. Teaching for PA and Phonics Checking on Early Behaviors. Accurate and rapid identification of the letters of the alphabet The alphabetic principle (an understanding that the sequence of sounds or phonemes in a spoken word are represented by letters in a written word)

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Session Five

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session five

Session Five

Teaching for PA and Phonics

Checking on Early Behaviors

phonics and word study
Accurate and rapid identification of the letters of the alphabet

The alphabetic principle (an understanding that the sequence of sounds or phonemes in a spoken word are represented by letters in a written word)

Phonics elements (e.g., letter-sound correspondences, spelling patterns, syllables, and meaningful word parts)

How to apply phonics elements as they read and write

Provide explicit, systematic phonics instruction that teaches a set of letter-sound relations

Provide explicit instruction in blending sounds to read words

Include practice in reading texts that are written for students to use their phonics knowledge to decode and read words

Give substantial practice for children to apply phonics as they spell words

Use systematic classroom-based instructional assessment to inform instruction

Phonics and Word Study

What Students Need to Learn

How We Teach It

phonological awareness

Level 1

Awareness of Gross Differences

Awareness of Rhyme

Segmentation of Words into Syllables

Level 2

Awareness of Initial Consonant Segments

Awareness/ Segmentation of Onset and Rime


Level 3

Phonemic Segmentation

Phonemic Synthesis (Blending)

Phonemic Manipulation

Phonological Awareness

Dechant, 1993



Phonological Awareness


  • Recognizing Word/Sentence Length
  • Letter/Sound Associations
  • Rhyming
  • Syllabication
  • Decoding
  • Segmenting Onset/Rime
  • Encoding
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • • Isolating Sounds
  • • Identifying Sounds
  • • Categorizing Sounds
  • • Blending Sounds
  • • Segmenting Sounds
  • • Deleting Sounds
  • • Adding Sounds
  • • Substituting Sounds
use three approaches to phonics instruction

Use Three Approaches to Phonics Instruction

Embedded Phonics— phonics skills learned by embedding phonics instruction in text reading.

Implicit and relies on incidental learning

Contextualized and meaningful

Analytic Phonics— Teach students to analyze letter-sound relations in known whole words to detect patterns and split word into parts

Focus on whole to part (to whole) word reading

Avoids pronouncing sounds in isolation

Helps with non-decodable words

Synthetic Phonics—Teach students all sounds, then letters, then how to convert letters into sounds and then blend the sounds to form recognizable words.

Considered an isolated skills approach, decontextualized

Often uses multi-sensory approaches (e.g. clay)

Most often used for stalled readers

sequence of instruction

Sequence of Instruction

Lists differ slightly

Idea is to build from simple to complex

Single consonants (names and sounds; order from front to back of mouth)

Short vowels (sounds of vowels; as in cat, peg, bin)

Consonant Vowel Consonant words (CVC; e.g. cab, pic, hen)

Beginning blends (CCVC; e.g. bl, cl, sw, st)

Final blends (CVCC; e.g. ink, ang, ump)

Beginning and end consonant digraphs (two consonants, one sound; e.g. chip, sash)

Long vowels with silent e (names of vowels; e.g. fade, joke)

Long vowels in Vowel diagraphs (two vowels, one sound, e.g. ai, ay, ea, ee, oa)

Dipthongs (two vowels, two sounds –almost; e.g. boil, hook, house)

Vowels controlled by r, l, and w (e.g. card, bird, bald, lawn, cow, flew)

what kind of phonics
What Kind of Phonics
  • Systematic, not random:
    • Preplanned skill sequence
    • Progresses from easier sounds to more difficult sounds
    • High-utility sounds and letters taught first
    • Letters with similar shapes and sounds are separated
    • Vowels separated in sequence of alphabetic instruction
what kind of phonics1
What Kind of Phonics?
  • Explicit:
    • The teacher explains and models
    • Gives guided practice
    • Watches student responses and gives corrective feedback
    • Plans extended practice on skills as needed by individuals
components of explicit systematic code instruction
Components of explicit, systematic code instruction
  • Introduce new pattern
    • Auditory (hear it)
    • Visual (see it)
    • Kinesthetic (touch or manipulate it)
  • Practice Reading
    • Words with that pattern from text (to develop accuracy and automaticity)
    • Sentences/Phrases from the text (accuracy and intonation)
    • Text (accuracy/automaticity/intonation=fluency)
  • Practice Spelling
    • Words (sound/symbol and patterns)
    • Sentence dictation (accuracy and automaticity)
review in teaching phonics
Review in Teaching Phonics
  • Teach high-utility phonics skills that are most useful for decoding and spelling unfamiliar words
  • Follow a developmental continuum for systematic phonics instruction, beginning with rhyming and ending with phonics generalizations
teaching phonics continued
Teaching Phonics Continued
  • Provide direct instruction to teach phonics skills.
  • Choose words from books students are reading and other high-frequency words.
  • Provide opportunities for students to apply what they are learning about phonics through word sorts, making words, interactive writing, and other literacy activities.
teaching phonics continued1
Teaching Phonics Continued
  • Use oral activities to reinforce phonemic awareness skills as students blend and segment written words during phonics and spelling instruction.
  • Review phonics skills as part of the spelling program
  • Remember that spelling is an extension of phonics – it is not a separate subject!

Reviewing Phonemic to Phonics

phonics concepts
Phonics Concepts
  • 44 phonemes in English
  • Represented by 26 letters
  • NO 1-1 correspondence between phonemes and graphemes

Turn and Talk

  • Ways to Sort Letters
  • Ways to Sort Words
  • Ways to Break Words

Early Emergent Readers (Levels aa-C)

  • Aspiring readers are just beginning to grasp the basic concepts of book and print. They are acquiring a command of the alphabet with the ability to recognize and name upper- and lowercase letters. They are also developing many phonological awareness skills, such as recognizing phonemes, syllables, and rhyme.
  • Early Emergent readers are beginning to learn sound/symbol relationships--starting with consonants and short vowels--and are able to read CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) words, as well as a number of high-frequency words.
  • Books at this level have:
  • Strong picture support,
  • carefully controlled text,
  • repetitive patterns
  • controlled,
  • repeated vocabulary,
  • natural language,
  • large print,
  • wide letter spacing,
  • familiar concepts,
  • limited text on a page

Emergent Readers (Levels D-J)

  • Readers at this stage have developed an understanding of the alphabet, phonological awareness, and early phonics. They have command of a significant number of high-frequency words.
  • Emergent readers are developing a much better grasp of comprehension strategies and word-attack skills. They can recognize different types of text, particularly fiction and nonfiction, and recognize that reading has a variety of purposes.
  • Books at this stage have:
  • Increasingly more lines
  • of print per page
  • More complex sentence
  • structure
  • Less dependency on
  • repetitive pattern and
  • pictures
  • Familiar topics
  • but greater depth

Early Fluent Readers (Levels K-P)

  • At this stage, reading is more automatic, with more energy devoted to comprehension than word attack. Readers are approaching independence in comprehending text.
  • These readers are experiencing a greater variety of text and are able to recognize different styles and genres. Independence often varies with the type of text being read.
  • Books at this stage have:
  • More pages
  • Longer sentences
  • More text per page
  • Richer vocabulary
  • Greater variation in
  • sentence pattern
  • Less reliance on pictures
  • More formal and
  • descriptive language

Fluent Readers (Levels Q-Z)

  • Readers have successfully moved from “learning to read” to “reading to learn.” Their reading is automatic and is done with expression and proper pauses. Their energy is devoted to understanding, and they have good command and use of the various comprehension strategies.
  • These readers read a wide range of text types and do so independently. They will continue to refine and develop their reading skills as they encounter more difficult reading materials. But for the most part, they are capable of improving their reading skills and selection of materials independently through increased practice.
  • Books at this stage have:
  • More text
  • Less familiar, more varied topics
  • Challenging vocabulary
  • More complex sentences
  • Varied writing styles
  • More description

The Alphabetic Principle

  • There are two parts to the alphabetic principle:
    • Phonemic Awareness
    • Phonics

The understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken words.


What are a few sorting activities for LI?

  • letters in abc order,
  • letters with tails,
  • letters that are in your name
  • tunnels or mountains,
  • letters with circles,
  • letters with sticks,
  • letters that are tall,
  • upper and lower,
  • letters that are short

Working With Letters

  • Using Letter Formation and
  • Three Ways of Remembering
  • Model with:
  • Write the letter saying its name
  • Write it again saying the verbal path
  • Write it again saying the sound that goes with the letter