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EE 104: Introduction to Communications. Professor Andrea Goldsmith. Outline. Course Information and Policies Communication Systems Today Future Systems Design Challenges. Course Information (see web or handout for more details).

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EE 104: Introduction to Communications

Professor Andrea Goldsmith

outline
Outline
  • Course Information and Policies
  • Communication Systems Today
  • Future Systems
  • Design Challenges
course information see web or handout for more details
Course Information(see web or handout for more details)
  • Instructor: Andrea Goldsmith, Packard 371, andrea@ee, Ext: 56932, OHs: W 11am-12pm, Th 5:30-6:30.
  • Class Homepage: www.stanford.edu/class/ee104
  • TAs:
    • Jaron Charles, jcharles@stanford, OHs: Th 7-9pm, Email W 8:30-9:30pm
    • Nikola Stikov, nikola@stanford, OHs: F 11am-1pm, Email Th 6-7pm
  • Class mailing list: ee104-students (automatic for registered students), ee104-staff for instructor/TAs, guest list available
  • Discussion Section: W 6:15-7:15pm; not televised
  • Book: An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communications
  • Grading: HWs 30%, Midterm 30%, Final 40%
  • No Lectures Jan. 15 and Feb. 24
    • Other lectures that week start at 12:50pm, or can schedule makeups
class policies
Class Policies
  • Exam policy: Exams must be taken at their scheduled times. Exceptions only in very rare circumstances.
    • Midterm: 2/12 from 12:30-2:05
    • Final: 3/20 from 8:30-11:30am.
  • HW policy:
    • Assigned Friday, due following Friday. Lose 25% credit per day late.
    • Up to 3 students can collaborate on 1 writeup. All collaborators must work out all problems.
  • SITN students:
    • HWs must be faxed or postmarked by HW deadline for regular students. Exceptions must be cleared in advance.
    • Exams must be taken at same time as for regular students.
communication systems
Communication Systems
  • Provide for electronic exchange of multimedia data
    • Voice, data, video, music, email, web pages, etc.
  • Communication Systems Today
    • Radio and TV broadcasting (covered later in the course)
    • Public Switched Telephone Network (voice,fax,modem)
    • Cellular Phones
    • Computer networks (LANs, WANs, and the Internet)
    • Satellite systems (pagers, voice/data, movie broadcasts)
    • Bluetooth
pstn design

Local Switching

Office (Exchange)

Local Switching

Office (Exchange)

PSTN Design
  • Local exchange
    • Handles local calls
    • Routes long distance calls over high-speed lines
  • Circuit switched network tailored for voice
  • Faxes and modems modulate data for voice channel
  • DSL uses advanced modulation to get 1.5 Mbps

Long Distance Lines

(Fiber)

Fax

Modem

Local Line

(Twisted Pair)

cellular system basics

BASE

STATION

Cellular System Basics
  • Geographic region divided into cells
  • Frequencies/timeslots/codes reused at spatially-separated locations (analog systems use FD, digital use TD or CD)
  • Co-channel interference between same color cells.
  • Handoff and control coordinated through cell base stations
cell phone backbone network

BS

BS

BS

MTSO

MTSO

Cell Phone Backbone Network

San Francisco

New York

PSTN

Internet

local area networks lans

0101

0101

1011

1011

Local Area Networks (LANs)
  • LANs connect “local” computers
  • Breaks data into packets
  • Packet switching (no dedicated channels)
  • Proprietary protocols (access,routing, etc.)

01011011

01011011

slide10

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)

1011

0101

01011011

Internet

Access

Point

  • WLANs connect “local” computers (100m range)
  • Breaks data into packets
  • Channel access is shared (random access)
  • Backbone Internet provides best-effort service
slide11

1011

0101

Wide Area Networks:

The Internet

Internet

01011011

Bridge

LAN

MAN

Bridge

LAN

Satellite and

Fiber Lines

  • Many LANs and MANs bridged together
  • Universal protocol: TCP/IP (packet based).
  • Guaranteed rates or delays cannot be provided.
  • Hard to support user mobility.
  • Highly scalable and flexible topology
satellite systems
Satellite Systems
  • Cover very large areas
  • Different orbit heights
    • Geosynchronous (GEO) versus low earth orbit (LEO)
  • Optimized for one-way transmission
    • Paging, radio and movie broadcast
  • Most two-way systems struggling or bankrupt
    • Expensive alternative to terrestrial system
    • A few ambitious systems on the horizon
bluetooth
Bluetooth
  • Cable replacement for electronic devices
    • Cell phones, laptops, PDAs, etc.
  • Short range connection (10-100 m)
  • 1 data (721 Kbps) and 3 voice (56 Kbps) channels
  • Rudimentary networking capabilities
future systems
Future Systems

Ubiquitous Communication Among People and Devices

Nth Generation Cellular

Nth Generation WLANs

Nth Generation Internet

Wireless Entertainment

Sensor Networks

Smart Homes/Appliances

Automated Cars/Factories

Telemedicine/Learning

All this and more…

design challenges
Design Challenges
  • Hardware Design
    • Precise components
    • Small, lightweight, low power
    • Cheap
    • High frequency operation
  • System Design
    • Converting and transferring information
    • High data rates
    • Robust to noise and interference
    • Supports many users
  • Network Design
    • Worldwide anywhere any-time connectivity
    • Speed
main points
Main Points
  • Communication systems send information electronically over communication channels
  • Many different types of systems which convey many different types of information
  • Design challenges include hardware, system, and network issues
  • Communication systems recreate transmitted information at receiver with high fidelity
  • Focus of this class is design and performance of analog and digital communication systems