sexual and gender identity sexual and gender disorders n.
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Sexual and Gender Identity & Sexual and Gender Disorders. Main Ideas. What is gender identity? How does gender identity develop? Theories of gender development. Important Vocabulary . Sex - Male/female-based upon chromosomes (xx or xy) What’s between your legs.

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Presentation Transcript
main ideas
Main Ideas
  • What is gender identity?
  • How does gender identity develop?
  • Theories of gender development.
important vocabulary
Important Vocabulary
  • Sex- Male/female-based upon chromosomes (xx or xy) What’s between your legs.
  • Gender- Cultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity or femininity. What’s between your ears.
  • Gender Identity- a person’s psychological sense of being male or female.
  • Sexual Orientation- a person's emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction to individuals of a particular sex(not a preference). What’s in your heart.
      • They prefer pizza & boys to chocolate & girls???
biological correlates of sexual orientation
Biological correlates of sexual orientation
  • Evidence strongest in males
    • Gays & lesbians fall in between straight males & females
  • 1. Brain differences
    • One hypothalamic cell cluster larger in straight males than females and gay males
    • Anterior commissure is larger in gay males than females or straight males
    • Gay males hypothalamus reacts the same as females to smell of sex related hormones
biological correlates of sexual orientation contd
Biological correlates of sexual orientation (contd.)
  • 2. Genetic Influences
    • Shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins than fraternal twins
    • Sexual orientation in fruit flies can be genetically manipulated
  • 3. Pre-hormonal Influences
    • Altered prenatal hormone exposure may lead to homosexuality in humans & other animals
    • Males with several older brothers more likely to be homosexual
  • These three differences/influences may contribute to observable gay-straight differences in…
    • Spatial ability Fingerprint ridge counts
    • Handedness Occupational preferences
    • Relative finger length Gender nonconformity, etc.
important vocabulary1
Important Vocabulary
  • Gender Roles- behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits designated as masculine/feminine.
  • Gender Stereotypes- oversimplified beliefs about male/female behavior
  • Gender Schema- cluster of physical qualities, behaviors, and personality traits associated w/one sex.
  • Modeling- Social learning through observation and imitation of others. (Bandura’s Bobo doll)
development of gender identity bee 1998
Development of Gender Identity (Bee 1998)
  • Gender identity: 1-3 yrs
  • Gender stability: 3 - 4 yrs
  • Gender constancy: 5 - 6 yrs
gender schema theory
Gender Schema Theory
  • Links cognitive development with social learning theory in the sense that schemas are socialisedcognitive networks of sex & gender roles
  • People with high gender schemas are more prone to stereotypic perception & behaviour
  • High schemas facilitate the creation of cognitive heuristics (gender stereotypes & gender values)
social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • Almost from birth children are treated in gender specific ways (e.g. birthday cards, toys, & dress)
  • Parents & society reinforce gender specific behaviours & attitudes
  • Boys and girls imitate males & females respectively

identity constructed theory
Identity Constructed Theory

Bee (1998) suggests 3 stages:

  • This theory emphasises the individual’s sense of commitment to a gender category.
  • The gender category may conflict with social norms (McManus 1999) - may lead to gender dysphoria
enculturated lens theory
Enculturated-Lens Theory
  • Development of gender identity is embedded in socio-historical context of each culture
  • Culture operates as lens through which gender identity & gender roles are defined & passed on as memes of behaviour
    • Memes-A unit of cultural information, such as a cultural practice or idea, that is transmitted verbally or by repeated action from one mind to another
  • Androgyny is the socialised freedom to identify with male or female roles (Bem 1993).
biological theory
Biological Theory
  • Biologists argue that males with Klinefelter’s syndrome (males with extra x=xxy) & females with Turner’s syndrome (females with a damaged/missing x) may have a very different gender identity
  • Intersexed infants (born with both male & female genitals) may have to decide which gender category they belong
    • Hermaphrodites
biological theory contd
Biological Theory contd.
  • Biological characteristics may partly explain gender differences
  • Hormonal activities tend to influence mind and body (e.g. aggression & emotionality)
  • Estrogen (associated with xx) may be a protective hormone associated with longevity
  • Estrogen may also be associated with the slow processing of alcohol & quicker intoxication
gender identity disorder
Gender Identity Disorder
  • Gender Dysmorphic - those unhappy with their anatomical sex who wish to be of the opposite sex
  • A male with GID experiences his sexual interest in men as a conventional heterosexual orientation
    • Doesn’t consider himself homosexual, instead, a female trapped in a man’s body
  • Biological studies (e.g., hormones, chromosomal abnormalities) have been inconclusive
  • In children with GID, parents are more accepting of their cross-gender behavior
The Paraphilias (the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, or individuals.)
  • Fetishism - reliance on an inanimate object for sexual arousal
  • Transvestic Fetishism - a man who is aroused by dressing in women’s clothing, although he still regards himself as a man (usually heterosexual)
  • Pedophilia - adults, usually men, who derive sexual gratification exclusively through physical and often sexual contact with prepubertal children
    • ***95% of known Pedophiles are heterosexual***
  • Voyeurism- arousal from observing an unsuspecting person who is disrobing, naked, or engaged in sexual activity
the paraphilias unusual sexual fantasies urges or behaviors
The Paraphilias (unusual sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors)
  • Exhibitionism-sexual arousal by exposing one’s genitals to shocked strangers.
  • Frotteurism- sexual arousal from touching and rubbing against a nonconsenting person (crowds, bus, subway car, etc.)
  • Sexual Sadism- arousal from intentionally inflicting psychological or physical suffering on another person.
  • Sexual Masochism- arousal in response to being humiliated, beaten, bound, or made to suffer.
    • BDSM-bondage, domination, sado-masochism