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Chapter 11: Feeding the World. Nutrition. Food Security Macro vs. micro nutrients Malnutrition Undernutrition Overnutrition WHO | Obesity and overweight Malnutrition and Gender Inequality. Protein Energy Malnutrition. Marasmus Kwashiorkor.

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nutrition
Nutrition
  • Food Security
  • Macro vs. micro nutrients
  • Malnutrition
  • Undernutrition
  • Overnutrition
    • WHO | Obesity and overweight
  • Malnutrition and Gender Inequality
protein energy malnutrition
Protein Energy Malnutrition
  • Marasmus
  • Kwashiorkor
ways to reduce childhood deaths from hunger and malnutrition
Ways to reduce childhood deaths from hunger and malnutrition
  • Immunize
  • Breastfeed
  • Prevent dehydration
  • Provide family planning
  • Increase education for women
  • Provide Vitamin A
famine
Famine
  • Sudan, Africa: Civil war since 1983
  • Mother describes life in Southern Sudan
  • Teaching Farming Techniques
animation land use
Animation: Land Use

PLAY

ANIMATION

green revolution
Green Revolution
  • Increased yields per unit area since 1940’s Three steps:
    • Developing and planting monocultures, selective breeding or genetically engineered crops
    • Increased use of fertilizers, pesticides and water
    • Increasing the intensity and frequency of cropping
    • The Green Revolution: Waging A War Against Hunger
agriculture
Agriculture
  • Where would you find the following types of agriculture and what types of crops are grown by each?
    • Traditional (low input)
    • Industrial (high input)
    • Plantation
slide9

Industrialized agriculture

Plantation agriculture

Intensive traditional ag.

Shifting cultivation

Nomadic herding

No agriculture

Fig. 13-4, p. 275

slide10

Traditional subsistence agriculture

Traditional intensive agriculture

slide11

Industrial agriculture (high input)

  • What are the high inputs required to make industrialized agriculture work?
  • Tend to be monocultures
plantation agriculture
Plantation agriculture
  • Type of industrialized agriculture
  • Problems associated with plantation agriculture

Coffee plantation Kenya

Tea plantation in Malaysia

organic farming
Organic Farming
  • Food grown without the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers
  • Disadvantages of organic farming?
slide14
Three ways to decrease hunger, malnutrition and the harmful environmental effects of agriculture:
  • Slow population growth.
  • Sharply reduce poverty.
  • Develop and phase in systems of more sustainable, low input agriculture over the next few decades.

Back to the Start

Figure 13-34

grazing
Grazing

Ungrazed

Grazed

Recovery

Metabolic

reserve

intact

Metabolic

reserve

Metabolic

reserve

overgrazing
Overgrazing

Ungrazed

Overgrazed

Death

Most of

metabolic

reserve

eaten

Metabolic

reserve

Death

producing more meat
Producing More Meat
  • Rangelands vs. feedlots (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations - CAFO’s)

The Meatrix

Meatrix 2

Meatrix 2.5

Grocery Store Wars

slide18

Trade-Offs

Animal Feedlots

Advantages

Disadvantages

Increased meat production

Need large inputs of grain, fish meal, water, and fossil fuels

Efficient or inefficient?

Higher profits

Concentrate animal wastes that can pollute water

Hogs & Water Quality

Less land use

Reduced overgrazing

Reduced soil erosion

Antibiotics can increase genetic resistance to microbes in humans

Image of Hog Farms

Help protect biodiversity

Fig. 13-21, p. 289

use of antibiotics and steroids in meat production
Use of antibiotics and steroids in meat production

Animal Antibiotic Overuse Hurting Humans? - CBS Evening News - CBS News

Growth steroids (hormones): cattle and sheep

Milk Production hormones: dairy cattle (not beef cattle)

No growth hormones allowed for poultry (turkey, chicken and ducks) or pigs

slide20

Fishing Methods

Trawler fishing

Fish farming in cage

Spotter airplane

Sonar

Purse-seine fishing

Trawl flap

Trawl lines

Fish school

Trawl bag

Drift-net fishing

Long line fishing

Buoy

Float

Lines with hooks

Deep sea aquaculture cage

Fish caught by gills

Turtle excluder device

slide21

Trade-Offs

Aquaculture

Advantages

Disadvantages

High efficiency

Needs large inputs of land, feed, and water

High yield in small volume of water

Large waste output

Destroys mangrove forests and estuaries

Can reduce overharvesting of conventional fisheries

Uses grain to feed some species

Low fuel use

Dense populations vulnerable to disease

High profits

Dan Barber Video

Tanks too contaminated to use after about 5 years

Profits not tied to price of oil

Fig. 13-24, p. 292

slide22

Solutions

More Sustainable Aquaculture

• Use less fishmeal feed to reduce depletion of other fish

• Improve management of aquaculture wastes

• Reduce escape of aquaculture species into the wild

• Restrict location of fish farms to reduce loss of mangrove forests and estuaries

• Farm some aquaculture species in deeply submerged cages to protect them from wave action and predators and allow dilution of wastes into the ocean

• Certify sustainable forms of aquaculture

Fig. 13-25, p. 293

government policies and food production
Government Policies and Food Production
  • Governments use three main approaches to influence food production:
    • Control prices to keep prices artificially low.
    • Provide subsidies to keep farmers in business.
    • Let the marketplace decide rather that implementing price controls.
what is a subsidy
What is a subsidy?
  • Financial assistance from the government to assist a business
  • Agricultural subsidies:
    • Direct payments to farmers for certain levels of output
    • Price supports that keep prices higher to increase revenue for farmers: Ex: the government sets a minimum price for sugar that it guarantees to sugar growers. If the market price drops below that level, the government makes up the difference.
    • Protection against imports of certain products (sugar, dairy) to keep market for local producers
animation pesticide examples
Animation: Pesticide Examples

PLAY

ANIMATION

Persistence

Resistance

the gene revolution
THE GENE REVOLUTION
  • To increase crop yields, we can mix the genes of similar types of organisms and mix the genes of different organisms.
    • Artificial selection has been used for centuries to develop genetically improved varieties of crops.
    • Genetic engineering develops improved strains at an exponential pace compared to artificial selection.
  • Controversy has arisen over the use of genetically modified food (GMF).
mixing genes
Mixing Genes
  • Genetic engineering involves splicing a gene from one species and transplanting the DNA into another species.

PBS - harvest of fear: what about this fish?

Proposition 37 in CA

Figure 13-19

how would you vote
How Would You Vote?
  • Do the advantages of genetically engineered foods outweigh their disadvantages?
    • a. No. The impact of these foods could cause serious harm to the environment or human health.
    • b. Yes. These foods are needed to combat world hunger.
solutions making the transition to more sustainable agriculture
Solutions: Making the Transition to More Sustainable Agriculture
  • More research, demonstration projects, government subsidies, and training can promote more sustainable organic agriculture.

Figure 13-35