Chapter 8 Political geography. Key issue #1 where are states located?. Where Are States Located?. Problems of defining states Almost all habitable land belongs to a country today In 1940, there were about 50 countries Today, there are 193 countries (as evidenced by United Nations membership)
Fig. 8-1: The UN has increased from 51 members in 1945 to 191 in 2003.
Montenegro was added in 2006 and South Sudan in 2011.
Fig. 8-2: Antarctica is the only large landmass that is not part of a state, but several countries claim portions of it.
Fig. 8-3: The Fertile Crescent was the site of early city-states and a succession of ancient empires.
Fig. 8-4: By the outbreak of World War I, European states held colonies throughout the world, especially throughout Africa and in much of Asia.
Fig. 8-5: Most of the remaining colonies are small islands in the Pacific or Caribbean.
Green denotes the 42 landlocked countries located in the world.Purple denotes the 2 doubly landlocked countries in the world.
Fig. 8-6: Southern, central, and eastern Africa include states that are compact, elongated, prorupted, fragmented, and perforated.
Fig. 8-7: The Tin Bigha corridor fragmented two sections of the country of Bangladesh. When it was leased to Bangladesh, a section of India was fragmented.
Frontier-a zone where no state exercises complete political control.
**The only regions that still have frontiers, rather than boundaries, are Antarctica and the Arabian Peninsula.
Fig. 8-8: Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers rather than precise boundaries.
Fig. 8-9: The straight boundary between Libya and Chad was drawn by European powers, and the strip is the subject of controversy between the two countries.
Fig. 8-10: Cyprus has been divided into Green and Turkish portions since 1974.
Fig. 8-11: State legislature boundaries were drawn to maximize the number of legislators for Republicans in Florida and Democrats in Georgia.
Fig. 8-12: NATO and the European Union have expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.
Fig. 8-13: Twentieth-century boundary changes in Europe, 1914 to 2003. Germany’s boundaries changed after each world war and the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center June 30, 2000, before the attack.
Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center September 15, 2001, after the attack.