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Honors Chemistry Chapters 1 + 2. Chemistry- Matter and change. Chemistry Defined. T he study of the composition and changes undergone by matter. Biology. Physiology. Environmental Science. Chemistry. Physics. Geosciences. Forensics. Five Branches of Chemistry. Organic Inorganic

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Honors chemistry chapters 1 2
Honors ChemistryChapters 1 + 2

Chemistry- Matter and change

Chemistry defined
Chemistry Defined

The study of the composition and changes undergone by matter









Five branches of chemistry
Five Branches of Chemistry

  • Organic

  • Inorganic

  • Analytical-composition of substances.

  • Physical-behavior of chemical substances

  • Biochemistry

Chemistry can be
Chemistry Can Be…

  • Pure

    • For the advancement of knowledge about our world

    • Many “Pure” pursuits lead to practical applications (i.e. nylon)

  • Applied

    • For a specific issue that faces society

    • Pharmaceuticals, etc.

Read “The Symbiosis of Pure and Applied Science” posted under the Introduction to Chemistry topic and respond to the discussion question

Scientific method
Scientific Method






Important distinction
Important distinction



Provides an explanation of what occurs in nature

Arise following many, many experiments

Merely states what occurs in nature

Important distinctions continued
Important Distinctions Continued

  • Independent Variable – manipulated variable

  • Dependent Variable – responding variable

  • Control- A standard of comparison for checking or verifying the results of an experiment.

  • Constant - A quantity, condition, or factor that does not vary throughout the course of an experiment.

  • Qualitative- sensory observations (EX: brown)

  • Quantitative- numerical measurements (EX: 5 grams)

  • Observation- objective explanation of phenomena

  • Inference- subjective explanation of phenomena


  • If you haven’t done so already, read sections 1.1-1.3 of the text.

  • The reading and presentations we have done thus far should enable you to complete:

    • Written work for chapter 1 (sections 1.1-1.3 only)

    • Supplemental Questions 1-5

  • As always, if you have questions about this material or need help with any of your work, make arrangements to see Mrs. Pav ASAP.

Physical properties of matter
Physical properties of matter

  • Properties that can be observed without changing the composition of matter.

Anything that has mass*and takes up space

  • Extensive properties are dependent on the amount of matter present

  • Intensive properties are independent of the amount of matter present.

A measurement that reflects the amount of matter

*not to be confused with weight

States of matter
states of Matter

  • Matter CAN change state

  • Three basic states of matter

Classification of matter
Classification of matter

  • Substance- purely 1 type of matter (elements and compounds)


  • Mixture- composed of 2 or more substances physically combined

    • Heterogeneous- composition varies

      • more than one phase*

    • Homogeneous(aka“solution”) - uniform composition

      • one phase

*Phase refers to any part of a sample with uniform composition

Separating mixtures
Separating Mixtures

  • ALL MIXTURES CAN BE SEPERATED PHYSICALLY by exploiting the physical properties of the components

    • Filtration- used to separate a mixture with widely varying particle size

      • EX: rocks and water

    • Distillation- used to separate a liquid mixture based on differing boiling points.

      • EX: alcohol and water

    • Crystallization- used to separate an aqueous mixture

      • EX: salt water

    • Chromatography- separates a mixture based on polarity (affinity for stationary/mobile phase)

Classification of matter1
Classification of matter

  • Substance- 1 type of matter

    • Elements – Simplest form of matter

    • Compounds – A chemical combination of two or more different elements.

Changes to matter
Changes to Matter

  • Physical change- occurs without altering makeup

  • Chemical change- occurs through alteration of substance

Chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions

  • Must involve at least one material changing into a new material


  • Must obey the Law of Conservation of Mass:

    • Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reaction

6.06g → 16.06g

Indications of a chemical change

Change in color

Change in temperature

Formation of a gas

Formation of a precipitate


  • If you haven’t done so already, read sections 2.1-2.4 of the text.

  • The reading, presentations, activities and labs we have done thus far should enable you to complete:

    • Written work for chapter 2 (sections 2.1-2.4)

    • Supplemental Questions 6-10

  • As always, if you have questions about this material or need help with any of your work, make arrangements to see Mrs. Pav ASAP.