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STANDARDIZED GROUND MOVEMENT TRAINING FOR AIRPORT OPERATORS. Produced by Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport - In conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration Southern Region Runway Safety Program Office. Standardized Airfield Ground Movement Training Program.

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    1. STANDARDIZED GROUND MOVEMENT TRAININGFOR AIRPORT OPERATORS Produced by Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport - In conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration Southern Region Runway Safety Program Office

    2. Standardized Airfield Ground Movement Training Program • Overview/Purpose • Airfield Markings • Airfield Lighting • Airfield Signage • Radio Communication • Light Gun Signals • Runway Incursions • Construction • Conclusion • Acronyms

    3. Purpose of Training • To establish a standardized ground movement training program and make airport operators and vehicle operators aware of the resources available, to maintain the highest possible level of safety within the airport environment. To ensure that the number of runway incursions is reduced, along with the potential for aircraft incidents or accidents.

    4. Definitions • Runway – A defined rectangular surface on an airport prepared or suitable for the landing or take off of aircraft. • Taxiway – A defined path established for the taxiing of aircraft from one part of an airport to another. • Movement Area – Runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport which are used for taxiing, or hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and aircraft parking areas. • Runway Incursion – Any occurrence at an airport involving an aircraft, vehicle, person, or object on the ground that creates a collision hazard or results in a loss of separation with an aircraft taking off, intending to take off, landing, or intending to land.

    5. Airfield Markings • Hold Bars • ILS Hold Bars • Movement/Non-Movement Area Boundary • Intermediate Holding Position (Taxiway/Taxiway) • Surface Painted Holding Position • Surface Painted Directional Signs • Surface Painted Location • Taxiway Edge (Full and Dashed) • Geographic Positioning • Vehicle Roadways

    6. Hold Bars • Used to identify the location where a pilot or vehicle is to stop when clearance has not been granted onto a runway. • Never cross without permission. • Hold on the solid line side. Hold Here

    7. ILS/MLS Hold Bar • To identify the location where a pilot or vehicle is to stop when he/she does not have clearance to enter the ILS/MLS area. • Located at the perimeter of the ILS/MLS critical area. • Unauthorized penetration could disrupt NAVAIDS.

    8. Movement/Non-Movement Area Boundary • Defines the boundary of the movement area and non-movement area. • Must have permission from ATC to enter movement area. • Hold on the solid line side. HoldHere

    9. Intermediate Holding Position(Taxiway/Taxiway) • To identify a location of a taxiway or apron where aircraft or vehicles are supposed to stop when advised to hold short of another taxiway or apron. Used at airports where there is an operational need to hold traffic at taxiway/taxiway intersections, geographic position, or a holding bay.

    10. Surface Painted Holding Position • Used where pilots had difficulty discerning the location of the holding position and to supplement signs located at holding positions. • Required where the width of holding position on the taxiway is greater than 200’. • Used in conjunction with the hold bar.

    11. Surface Painted Direction Signs • Useful to guide pilots to runways or taxiways and to avoid missing taxiway turns. • Applied on taxiway surface when it is not feasible to provide elevated directional signs or to supplement elevated signs.

    12. Surface Painted Location Signs • Used to supplement elevated signs and assist pilots in confirming the taxiway on which the aircraft is located. • Located on taxiway paved surface.

    13. Taxiway Edge Stripes • Used to delineate the edge of a taxiway, primarily when the edge of the useable taxiway does not correspond to the edge of the pavement. (Example, taxiway shoulders). • Continuous – Paved surface other than full strength taxiway not intended for use by aircraft. • Dashed – Operational need to identify taxiway edge where abutting paved surface is intended for use by aircraft.

    14. Geographic Position Markings • Designed to identify the location of taxiing aircraft during periods of low visibility. • Located on taxi routes in accordance with the airports’ Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) plan.

    15. Vehicle Roadway Markings • Defines route that vehicles should use when the same area is used in conjunction with aircraft. • Markings can be solid or zipper style for greater visibility. • Vehicles should use these routes to the greatest extent practicable.

    16. Airport Lighting • Runway Lighting • Taxiway Lighting • Runway Centerline Lighting • Taxiway Centerline Lighting • Elevated Guard Lights (Wigwags) • In Pavement Guard Lights • Runway End Lights

    17. Runway Edge Lighting • Designed to identify the edge of the usable runway surface at night and during periods of low visibility. • Clear (or white) except the last 2000’ of a precision or non-precision instrument runway, lights are amber.

    18. Taxiway Edge Lighting • Designed to identify the edge of the usable taxiway surface at night and during periods of low visibility. • Taxiway edge lighting is blue.

    19. Runway Centerline Lighting • Runway Centerline lighting is used to provide pilots with alignment guidance during takeoff and landing operations, primarily during low visibility conditions. • Runway centerline lights are white (clear). Except the last 3000’ portion. 2000’ of lights are alternating white/red and the last 1000’ are solid red.

    20. Taxiway Centerline Lighting • Taxiway Centerline lighting is designed to facilitate ground movement, primarily during low visibility conditions. • Taxiway centerline and lead-on/off lights are green.

    21. Elevated Runway Guard Lights(Wigwags) • Elevated guard lights are used to identify the holding position for a runway especially at night and during periods of low visibility. • Used to enhance the hold bar and elevated signs.

    22. In –Pavement Guard Lights • Supplement hold bars and hold position signage to alert pilots or vehicle operators of the holding position, especially during poor weather or periods of low visibility.

    23. Runway End Lights • Used to depict the end of the useable runway to aircraft. • Arranged in two sets of four lights.

    24. Airfield Signs • Hold Position Signs • ILS/MLS Critical Area Signs • No Entry • Runway Approach Signs • Taxiway Location Signs • Distance Remaining Signs • Taxiway Ending Marker • Inbound Destination Signs • Array of Multiple Signs

    25. Hold Position Signs • Used to denote the entrance to a runway or critical area, in conjunction with hold bars. • Have white inscriptions with red backgrounds. • Must not be passed unless permission is granted by ATC. • Should be NOTAMed when unavailable or unlit.

    26. ILS/MLS Critical Area Sign • Used in conjunction with ILS/MLS Critical area hold markings to identify the outer boundary of the critical area. • White inscription with Red background. • Penetration into area without permission could disrupt NAVAIDs.

    27. No Entry Signs • Indicates that entry into a particular area is prohibited to aircraft. • White dash and circle with red background.

    28. Hold Position Signs for Runway Approach Areas • Identifies the location that aircraft or vehicles should hold until permission is granted to cross through a runway safety area or penetrate airspace required at the approach to a runway.

    29. Taxiway Location Signs • Identify the taxiway on which the aircraft or vehicle is located. • The inscription is yellow with a black background. • Can also be used to designate a runway in which an aircraft or vehicle is located.

    30. Distance Remaining Signs • Used to identify the distance remaining on a runway, during take off and landing. • White inscription with black background. • Located at 1000’ increments.

    31. Taxiway Ending Marker • Used to indicate that a taxiway does not continue. • Retro-reflective sign or barriers with alternating yellow and black angled stripes.

    32. Inbound Destination Sign • Used to designate a location on the airport such as an FBO, ramp parking area, military operation, or fuel. • Black inscription with yellow background. • Denotes generally non-movement area facilities.

    33. Sign Array • Used to provide direction to multiple taxiways within close proximity. • Generally located at the intersection of two or more taxiways. • Consists of Taxiway location and Taxiway directions.

    34. Radio Communication • Tower Control • Ground Control • Phonetic Alphabet • Proper Phraseology • Light Gun Signals

    35. Tower Frequency • Controls the movement of aircraft on airport runways and airport airspace. • Local controller has jurisdiction over runways. • The tower frequency for this airport is ---.-- MHZ.

    36. Ground Control Frequency • Responsible for the control of aircraft, vehicles, and pedestrians on controlled airport surfaces, except runways. (Movement Areas) • The Ground Control frequency for this airport is ---.--MHZ.

    37. Phonetic Alphabet A- Alpha J- Juliet S- Sierra B- Bravo K-Kilo T- Tango C- Charlie L- Lima U- Uniform D- Delta M-Mike V- Victor E- Echo N- November W-Whiskey F- Foxtrot O-Oscar X- X-ray G-Golf P- Papa Y- Yankee H-Hotel Q-Quebec Z- Zulu I - India R- Romeo

    38. Proper Phraseology • Identify who you are calling/name of facility. Vehicle – “Airport X Ground… Operations 1”. • Wait for a response. Tower – “Operations 1 .. Airport X Ground.” • Identify your intentions. Vehicle – “I am on the north side FBO Ramp and would like to cross Runway 7 to the South Ramp”. • Wait for a response. Tower – “Operations 1, Proceed up to and hold short of Runway 7 at Taxiway Mike.” • Always repeat the instructions back to the tower. Vehicle – “Roger, Operations 1, Proceed up to and hold short of Runway 7 at TaxiwayMike.”

    39. Proper Phraseology • Listen before you transmit. • Think about what you want to say. • Avoid using slang. • Use aviation related phraseology. • Roger (I understand) • Wilco (Will comply) • Acknowledge • Affirmative (Yes) • Negative (No)

    40. Light Gun Signals Used when a two way radio system between the air traffic control facility and aircraft or vehicle is unavailable or inoperative. • Steady Green Cleared to cross, proceed, or, go. • Cleared to taxi (aircraft only). • Steady Red Stop. • Clear runway or taxiway. • Return to starting point on airport. • Alternating Green/Red Use extreme caution. Flashing green Flashingred FlashingWhite

    41. Runway Incursions • The worst disaster in civil aviation history resulted from a runway incursion. • Runway incursions have increased from 186 to 321 nationally in the last seven (7) years. • Haze and fog increase the risk of runway accidents by a factor of twelve(12). • Runway incursions represent 6% of total aviation fatalities. • 60%-80% of runway incursion result from human error. • Nationally, runway incursions average 1 per every 200,000 aircraft operations.

    42. Runway Incursion Data Year Number of Incursions 1997 292 1998 325 1999 321 2000 429 2001 * 326 * thru 10/16/01

    43. Runway Incursion Data (cont’d) • Types of Incursions • Operational Error (OE) = 22% of occurrences • Pilot Deviations (PD) = 57% of occurrences • Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD) = 21% of occurrences

    44. Ways to Prevent Runway Incursions • See the Big Picture – When possible monitor both ground and tower frequencies. • Transmit Clearly – Make your instructions and read backs complete and easy to understand. • Listen Carefully – Listen to your clearance. Do not let communications become automatic. • Situational Awareness – Know your location. Know what is going on around you, in all directions. • Admit When Help is Needed – Ask ATC for help. Better to damage your pride than property.

    45. Ways to Prevent Runway Incursions • Understand Signs, Lights, and Markings – Keep current with airport signs, lights, and markings. Know what they mean and what action to take. • Never Assume – Do not take clearances for granted. Look both ways before entering or crossing taxiways and runways. • Follow Procedures – Establish safe procedures for airport operations. Then follow them. • Right of Way - When giving way to aircraft, ensure personnel and vehicles are outside of the Obstacle Free Area (OFA)

    46. Airport Construction • Ensure that contractors are briefed on airport surroundings. • Keep construction areas well guarded and lit. • Establish haul routes away from runways and taxiways. (If possible) • Ensure that NOTAMS are current. • Coordinate construction activities with your air traffic control tower. • Advisory Circular 150-5370-2C provides information.

    47. Conclusion To ensure safe operations are conducted at airports, it takes a cooperative effort from all who are involved. This includes pilots, controllers, airport operators, vehicle operators, and contractors. Together, we can make a difference to reduce incidents and make runway incursions, a thing of the past.

    48. Acronyms • ATC – Air Traffic Control • FBO – Fixed Based Operator • ILS – Instrument Landing System • MLS – Microwave Landing System • NAVAID – Navigational Aid • NOTAM – Notices to Airmen • SMGCS (Smigs) – Surface Movement Guidance and Control System