Chapter 12
Download
1 / 29

Chapter 12 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 116 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 12. Mendel and Heredity. Standard 3. Students know and understand the characteristics and structure of living things, the processes of life, and how living things interact with each other and their environment.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 12' - khuong


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Mendel and Heredity


Standard 3
Standard 3

  • Students know and understand the characteristics and structure of living things, the processes of life, and how living things interact with each other and their environment.

  • Benchmark 3.13: some traits can be inherited while others are due to the interaction of genes and the environment.

  • Assessment objective 3.13a: Classify well-known conditions as being purely genetic or the result of the interaction of genes and the environment.


Vocabulary
Vocabulary

  • Character Homozygous

  • Trait Heterozygous

  • Hybrid Punnett square

  • Generation Probability

  • Allele Pedigree

  • Dominant Genetic disorder

  • Recessive Polygenic character

  • Genotype Codominance

  • Phenotype Linked


Origins of hereditary science
Origins of Hereditary Science

  • Modern genetics is based on Mendel’s explanations for the patterns of heredity in garden pea plants.

  • Seven characters Mendel studied in his plants included:

    • Flower color

    • Seed color

    • Seed shape

    • Pod color

    • Pod shape

    • Flower position

    • Plant height

Gregor Mendel Introduction (1:30)


Contrasting traits
Contrasting Traits

  • In the study of heredity, physical features that are inherited are called characters.

  • A trait is one of several possible forms of a character.

  • For example, the color of a flower is inherited and therefore a character.

  • A variation of the color is a possible form of a character and therefore a trait.


Gregor Mendel Research and Principles (4:30)


A generation is a group of offspring from a given group of parents
A generation is a group of offspring from a given group of parents.

  • Mendel first ensured that his plants were true-breeding for a certain trait by letting the plants self-pollinate for several generations.

  • The first group of parents that are crossed are called the parental generation or P generation.



  • Mendel then let the F contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.1 generation plants self-pollinate and produce new plants. He called this new generation of offspring the second filial generation or F2 generation.

  • Notice how many of each trait was produced—what’s the deal?


Dominant and recessive traits
Dominant and Recessive Traits contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.

Punnett Squares Explained (5:00)


Quicklabs
Quicklabs contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.

  • Go to page 270 and complete table for the QuickLab. (10 minutes)

  • Quicklab pg. 273 add to table: dark vs. light hair and attached/unattached earlobe. (15 minutes)


Mendel s theories 2 51
Mendel’s Theories contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.(2:51)

  • Mendelian theory explains simple patterns of inheritance. In these patterns, two of several versions of a gene combine and result in one of several possible traits.

  • An organism’s traits come from different versions of genes. Each version is called an allele.

  • Traits can come from either parent—because of meiosis.

  • For every pair of traits, only one expresses itself.

  • The allele that expresses itself is said to be dominant.

  • The other allele is a recessive allele and its trait is not expressed.


Random segregation of alleles 4 41
Random Segregation of Alleles contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.(4:41)

  • Even though a gamete receives an allele from each parent, only chance (or fate) determines which one it will receive.

  • The law of segregation holds that when an organism produces gametes, each pair of alleles is separated and each gamete has an equal chance of receiving either one of the alleles.

  • Dominant alleles are indicated with a capital letter and recessive alleles have a lower case letter.

  • Given “a” and “A”, which is dominant and which is recessive?


Mendel s findings in modern terms
Mendel’s Findings in Modern Terms contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.

  • The set of alleles that an individual has for a character is called the genotype.

  • The trait that results from a set of alleles is the phenotype.

  • Genotype determines phenotype.


Homozygous heterozygous
Homozygous & Heterozygous contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.

  • If an individual has two of the same alleles of a certain gene, the individual is homozygous for the related character.

  • If an individual has two different alleles of a certain gene, then it is heterozygous.

  • Between pp and Pp, which is homozygous and which is heterozygous?

Significance of test cross as genetic tool (1:30)


Mendel s second experiment
Mendel’s Second Experiment contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.

  • Mendel used dihybrid crosses which involved two characters like color and shape to further test how patterns appear.

  • The Law of Independent Assortment holds that during gamete formations, the alleles of each gene segregate independently.

  • Alleles can mix and match.

Introduction dihybrid crosses (3:15)


Mendel s second law
Mendel’s Second Law contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.

  • Genes are linked to each other as parts of chromosomes.

  • Genes that are located close together on the same chromosome will rarely separate independently, thus they are said to be linked because they’re so close together.

Simulating a dihybrid cross (2:57)


Punnett squares
Punnett contrasting traits like white and purple flowers. Squares

  • Punnett squares show all the genotypes that could result from a given cross.

  • As shown, the simplest box is 4 squares with the parent’s traits on the top and side of the square.

  • Watch the video

  • Do the Test Cross QuickLab on page 277 (10 minutes).

Punnet Square (4:49)


Using probability 7 04
Using Probability contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.(7:04)

  • Probability is the likelihood that a specific event could occur.

  • Punnett squares predict probability

  • Probability can be calculated using the formula:

    Number of one kind of possible outcome

  • Probability = Total number of all possible outcomes

  • Probability formulas can be used to predict the probabilities that specific alleles will be passed on to offspring.


Using a pedigree
Using a Pedigree contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.

  • A pedigree is a family history that shows how a trait is inherited over many generations.

  • Genetic disorders or diseases can be inherited.

  • Pedigrees can answer questions associated with sex linkage, dominance, and heterozygosity.

Sex linked inheritance (29:06)


Sex linked genes
Sex-Linked Genes contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.

  • The Y and X chromosomes carry more genes than just gender.

  • Because the Y chromosome is shorter than the X chromosome, it holds fewer genes.

  • A recessive allele on a female’s X chromosomes will often have a corresponding dominant allele on the other X chromosome, thus the trait is not expressed on the female but can be passed on to a male offspring because their Y chromosome may lack a corresponding allele for the recessive gene.

  • These are sex-linked traits which are commonly seen more in males than females such as colorblindness.


Dominant recessive heterozygous homozygous
Dominant/Recessive contrasting traits like white and purple flowers.Heterozygous/Homozygous

  • If a person has a trait that is autosomal and dominant and has even one dominant allele, he/she will show the trait.

  • If a person has a recessive trait and only one recessive allele, he/she will not show the trait but could pass it on.

  • Quicklab pg 281 (15 min)

  • If a person is either heterozygous or homozygous dominant for an autosomal gene, their phentoype will show the dominant trait.

  • Homozygous recessive shows the recessive trait.

  • If a child shows the recessive trait, that means that both parents are heterozygous carriers of the recessive allele.


  • When several genes affect a character, it is called a polygenic character.

  • Examples are eye color, skin color and height.

  • Most characters are polygenic.

  • Human eye color is more complex than two genes. It is known that three genes are involved in eye color that explain inheritance of brown, green and blue, but it does not explain grey, hazel, or multiple shades of blue, brown, green and grey. The molecular basis of these genes is not known.

  • Incomplete dominance occurs when an offspring has a phenotype that is in-between the traits of its two parents.

  • An example is when a red and white snapdragon flower is crossed and a pink offspring results. It shows that neither the red or the white is completely dominant.

  • Incomplete dominance in snapdragons (2:07)

  • Incomplete dominance in humans and plants (2:01)


Blood types and rh factor
Blood types and polygenic character. Rh factor

  • In humans, blood types are determined by 3 alleles: IA, IB, and i. These can produce blood types of A, B, AB and O

  • The Rhagglutinogen (Rh antigen) was discovered and named for rhesus monkeys.

  • A person whose RBCs carry the Rhagglutinogen is Rh positive, while a person lacking it is Rh negative.

  • Most people are Rh positive.

  • If an Rh negative mother has an Rh positive baby, the mother recognizes the Rh agglutinins and produces anti-Rh agglutinins to fight them. This usually doesn’t affect the first child, but subsequent children that are Rh positive can be subject to the anti-Rh agglutinins from mom attacking the fetus’s red blood cells causing anemia and possible death.


Multiple alleles and codominance
Multiple alleles and polygenic character. Codominance

  • Multiple alleles are genes that have three or more possible alleles.

  • Codominance is a condition in which both alleles for the same gene are fully expressed.

  • Human blood groups are examples of codominance.

Multiple Alleles and

Codominance in Blood (11:09)


Genes affected by environment and genes linked within chromosomes
Genes affected by environment polygenic character. and genes linked within chromosomes

  • Phenotype can be affected by conditions in the environment such as nutrients and temperature.

  • Many arctic animals have genes that cause their fur to be dark in the summer and light in the winter in order to increase chances of survival through camouflage.

  • Environmental Factors Which Influence the Expression of Traits (02:02)

  • During meiosis, genes that are close together on the same chromosome are less likely to be separated than genes that are far apart.

  • Genes that are close together as well as the traits they determine are said to be linked.


Dihybrid punnett square
Dihybrid polygenic character. Punnett Square

  • Make a dihybridpunnett square for the possible genotypic possibilites:

  • F free earlobes

  • f attached earlobes

  • B brown eyes

  • b blue eyes

  • Write down the ratios for:

  • Free earlobe, brown eyes

  • Free earlobe, blue eyes

  • Attached earlobe, brown eyes

  • Attached earlobe, blue eyes


Review
Review polygenic character.

  • Page 287 Review: numbers 3-18, 23,24

  • Page 289 Test Prep pretest, 1-11 (including essay)

  • For the multiple choice, write out the question as well as the letter and answer for the correct answer to each question.


ad