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Presentation Transcript
slide2
“The evolutionary design of man has intrigued humans for many years. It has lead anthropologists to travel the world in search of fossil evidence to learn who we have evolved from. Human evolution began roughly 5-10 million years ago when the human line split from the apes. Slowly scientists have tried to put the pieces together to give us an idea of our evolutionary line.”
slide3

Morphological Evidence for Human Evolution

  • The fossil record shows slow gradual changes in structure over time …
    •  cranium
    • Flattening of face
    • Centering of foramen magnum
    • Reduction in canine size
    •  browridge size
    •  sagittal crest
slide4

A

E

Chimp

H. sapiens

B

C

H. neanderthalensis

H. erectus

D

P. boisei

H. habilis

G

F

A. africanus

A. aferensis (“Lucy”)

Common Ancestor

??

Time

slide6

Things to Remember …

  • Structural comparisons provide one piece of evidence.
  • Gradual accumulation of traits over time!
  • Modern humans did NOT evolve from apes!! They evolved independently from a common ancestor!!
  • Scientists disagree on the the hominid family tree!!
slide8

Procunsul

  • Common ancestor of anthropoids (monkeys, apes & humans)
  • Most abundant primate during the Miocene

Procunsul fossil

slide9

Common Ancestor of Chimps & Humans—Missing Link??

  • Split between apes & humans approx. 5-10 mya
  • Common ancestor likely was small & ”ape-like” with few “human-like” traits
  • Possibly more than one??
  • Several fossil candidates:
    • “Toumai” ???
    • “Millennium Man” ???
  • Identity is still uncertain!!
slide10

Some of Our Oldest, Most Distant Relatives

  • “Tomai” (6-7 mya)
  • “Millennium Man” (5.7-6.1 mya)
  • Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba (5.2-5.8 mya)
  • Ardipithecus ramidus ramidus (4.4 mya)

“Tomai” was discovered in 2002 in a desert in Chad.

“Millennium man” bones were discovered in 2000 in Kenya.

slide11

AUSTRALOPITHECINE

  • This group is thought to link older hominids (Ardipithecus) to younger hominids (Homo).
  • The transformation from ape-like features to modern human features characterize this group.
slide12

Australopithecus anamensis

  • Existed from 4.2 - 3.9 mya
  • Discovered by Meave Leakey in East Africa in 1995
  • Characteristics:
    • Reduced pointy canines
    • Thick tooth enamel
    • More upright posture
    • Fingers long and curved
    • Elongated face
    • Diastema present
slide13

Australpethicus afarensis—”Lucy” & Her Family

  • Existed from 3-4 mya
  • Lived in E. Africa
  • Primarily herbivorous
  • May have slept in trees to avoid large predators
  • Characteristics:
    • Small brain (35% modern)
    • Long arms
    • Short legs
    • Upright walker
slide14

“Lucy”

  • Discovered by Johanson in 1974 in Ethiopia
  • About 40% of her skeleton was found!
  • She stood about 3'6" tall & likely weighed 62 lbs
slide15

Laetoli Footprints

  • Found by Mary Leaky in Tanzania
  • These footprints were evidence of bipedalism:
    • Strong heel strike
    • Splayed toes
    • Slight arch
slide16

Australopithecus africanus

  • Existed from 2.3-3.0 mya
  • Found in South Africa
  • Characteristics:
    • No saggital crest
    • Less prominent browridge
    • Smaller canines
    • Face less elongated
    • No diastema
    • Ape-like arms
slide17

Famous A. africanusFossils

  • “Taung Baby”
    • 1st Hominid discovered (1924)
    • Child fossil (8 years old)
    • Evidence of African origins
  • “Little Foot”
    • Big toe able to move out to the side
    • Found stashed in a box
  • “Mrs. Ples”
    • Further evidence of African origins
    • Turns out to be “Mr. Ples”
slide18

Australopithecus garhi

  • Existed 2.5 mya (Ethiopia)
  • Found with many tools and an array of slaughtered animals
  • Characteristics:
    • Canines like Homo genus
    • No diastema
    • Elongated face
    • Ape-like arms and legs
slide19

PARANTHROPUS

  • Paranthtropus existed at the same time as the Australopithecines & some species of the Homo.
  • Lived among great predators
  • May have been preyed upon by members of the Homo genus!!
  • Distinguishing features:
    • Robust skulls
    • Large saggital crest
    • Huge flat molars used for grinding
slide20

“Nutcracker Man”

  • Paranthropus boisei (1.2-2.3 mya)
  • Open woodlands & grasslands
  • Primarily herbivorous (nuts, seeds, & roots)
  • Lived in harems--1 male & many females
  • Characteristics:
    • Muscular bodies (about 100 lbs)
    • Large, flat face
    • Huge jaw & teeth
    • Thick tooth enamel
    • Small brain (39% modern)
slide21

Paranthropus robustus

  • Existed 1-2 mya
  • Discovered in the 1930’s
  • Australopethecusrobustus
  • Named for the heavy build of the fossil
  • Used bones as tools to dig out tubers & termites

“Greek Lovers”

slide22

HOMO

  • Begins about 2.3 mya
  • Emergence of tool use, language, & culture.
  • Distinguishing characteristics:
    • Bigger brain (above 1000ml)
    • Straight-rising forehead
    • Rounder skull
    • Reduced teeth
    • Shorter arms & longer legs
slide23

Homo habilis

  • The earliest known Homo
  • Existed from 2.2 to 1.6 mya
  • “Handyman”--avid tool users
  • Scavenger
  • Characteristics:
    • Larger brains (47% modern)
    • Flatter face
    • No browridge
    • Forehead present
    • Long arms

Small (baseball size), simple tools—Oldowan

slide24

Homo rudolfensis

  • Existed from 2.4 to 1.9 mya
  • Omnivorous scavenger
  • Likely competed with H. habilis
  • Characteristics:
    • Larger brains (56% modern)
    • Large body size; very tall (5’5”)
    • No browridge
    • Flatter face
    • Forehead present
    • Long arms
slide25

Homo ergaster

  • 1.9 mya-600,000 ya
  • “Workman”
  • Lived in desert savannahs
  • Omnivorous scavenger
  • 1st to leave Africa—later became H. erectus
  • Characteristics:
    • Tall & muscular
    • Long legs
    • 74% modern brain size
    • Smooth skin for sweating

“Nariokotome Boy”

slide26

Homo erectus

  • Lived 2 mya-400,000 ya
  • Fossils found in Africa, Europe, & Asia
  • “Upright man”
  • Used more complex tools (Acheulian) for many tasks & used fire
  • Characteristics:
    • Large brain & thick cranium
    • Sloping forehead
    • Large orbits & face

“Turkana Boy”—one of the most complete Homo skeletons

homo floresensis
Homo floresensis
  • “Hobbit”
    • Discovered n 2004 on the Indonesian island of Flores
    • 3 ft tall adult female
    • 95,000-13,000 ya
    • Small brain
    • Found w/ stone tools & charred animal remains
  • May have evolved from Homo erectus
  • May have arrived on the island via a boat??
slide28

Homo heidelbergensis

  • 500,000-100,000 ya
  • Found in Europe, Africa, India, and China.
  • Used new advanced tools
  • Omnivorous
  • Proficient hunters
  • Characteristics:
    • Muscular, tall (6 feet)
    • Large face & browridge
    • Large brain (90% modern)
    • Big frontal lobes--speech
slide29

"Neanderthal Man"

  • H. neanderthalensis
  • 130,000 to 25,000 ya
  • Found in Europe, E. Asia, and the Middle East.
  • Flourished in warm periods & in the Ice Age.
  • Skilled hunters that cooperated to make a kill
  • Relied heavily on meat
slide30

“Neanderthal Man”

  • Characteristics:
    • Better tools
    • Burial sites with tools, ornaments & flowers
    • Cared for the disabled
    • Clothes & Shelters
    • Culture
    • Art & music (not abstract)
slide31

"Neanderthal Man"

  • Physical characteristics:
    • Stocky build (5’5”, 200 lbs)
    • Large muscles
    • Long, projecting nose
    • Large brain (12% larger)
  • Extinction likely caused by competition with modern humans
  • Likely not our direct ancestor—DNA analyses shows not closely related
slide32

Homo sapiens

  • “Knowing Man”
  • 130,000 ya-Present
  • Found Worldwide
  • Highly crafted tools
  • Complex social organization
  • Omnivorous diet
  • “Cro-Magnon Man” is an early H. sapiens that lived in W. Europe during the late Ice Age

Oldest (130,00 ya)H. sapiens fossil found in Ethiopia.