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The new Educational Reforms. Prof. J. Anamuah-Mensah. Problems with the old structure. Limited provision of further education and skills training facilities for the majority of the products of the JSS and SSS levels;

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the new educational reforms

The new Educational Reforms

Prof. J. Anamuah-Mensah

problems with the old structure
Problems with the old structure
  • Limited provision of further education and skills training facilities for the majority of the products of the JSS and SSS levels;
  • Inadequate provision of technical and vocational education at the second cycle level;
Poor literacy and numeracy skills of
  • pupils at the basic and second cycle
  • level;
  • Emphasis on subject knowledge
  • instead of intellectual competences
  • and skills;
  • Disconnection between education
  • especially at the tertiary level and
  • world of work;
The unstructured provision of apprenticeship training for the majority of school leavers who have to be prepared for a life time of work outside the formal school systems;
  • The crisis of insufficient places at the tertiary education level to meet the needs of a modernizing economy
Limited opportunities for post-secondary education for the products of technical, vocational and agricultural education;
  • Difficulties in the development of the polytechnics within the scope of higher education,
  • The vexed problem of sustainable financing of the whole tertiary education sector.
Poormanagement and supervision of
  • schools;
  • lack of guidance and counselling
  • services in the schools;
  • inadequate provision of infrastructural
  • and teaching/learning facilities;
  • Inadequate number of teachers
  • especially in TVET, maths and science
foundational principles
Foundational Principles
  • Incorporate moral and ethical principles into curricula at all levels
  • Emphasis on active learning rather than passive listening by students
  • Emphasis on intellectual competencies and skills rather than subject teaching
  • Development and application of minimum standards of learning in all curriculum
Institutionalisation of monitoring mechanisms into the process of reform
  • Focus on continuous learning
  • Emphasis on equality of access to education for all
specific terms of reference
Specific terms of Reference
  • Goal and Philosophy of Education
  • Principles guiding Curriculum design
  • Pre-School/Basic Education
  • Secondary/Technical/Vocational Education
  • Teacher education, Tertiary Education
  • Management and financing of Education
cross cutting issues
Cross Cutting Issues
  • Library
  • Information Services
  • Special Education
  • Guidance and Counselling
  • Information and communication technology (ICT)
  • Private sector participation in Education
philosophy of education in ghana
Philosophy of Education in Ghana

to create well-balanced(intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, and physically) individuals with the requisite knowledge, skills, values and aptitudes for self-actualisation and for the socio-economic and political transformation of the nation.

main focus of reforms
Main Focus of Reforms

Aimed at:

  • Promoting Literacy and numeracy at basic level
  • Creating a parallel structure to academic programmes at SHS level
  • Advocating a shift to Science and TVET
  • Formalising Apprenticeship training
  • Encouraging competency based training
  • Linking with the world of work
main actors
  • Teachers, Teachers Teachers
  • Teachers, Teachers Teachers
basic education
Basic Education

Basic Education is the minimum period of schooling needed to ensure that children acquire basic literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills as well as skills for creativity and healthy living.

  • pre-dispose children to conditions of formal schooling in order to accelerate the learning process during formal education;
  • nurture children in safe and caring environments with appropriate infrastructure, which will allow them to become healthy, alert, secure and able to learn;
  • strengthen primary education through the provision of quality pre-school education;
  • introduce children to basic hygiene and sanitation for healthy living;
  • Provide opportunities for the overall personal development of children through individual play and group activities.
  • minimise gender barriers which seem to affect girls even before they enter primary school;
  • inculcate in children the desire for learning.
  • consolidate the knowledge and skills acquired at the kindergarten level;
  • lay foundation for inquiry, creativity and innovation;
  • develop an understanding of how to lead a healthy life and achieve a good health status;
  • develop sound moral attitudes and appreciate one’s cultural heritage and identity;
  • develop the ability to adapt constructively to the changing local and global environment;
  • inculcate good citizenship in children to enable them to participate in national development;
  • develop the skills and aptitudes for assimilating new knowledge;
  • prepare pupils for further education and training;
  • make pupils understand the environment and the need to contribute to its sustainability.
content lower primary
Content - Lower Primary
  • English Language (Reading, Writing, Comprehension, Dictation);
  • Ghanaian Language (Reading, Writing, Comprehension, Dictation);
  • Basic Mathematical Skills;
  • French (Optional);
  • *Introduction to ICT;
  • *Creative Arts (Art and Craft, Music and Dance);
  • *Physical Education;

* These subjects should be taught as practical and creative activities.

content upper primary
Content - Upper Primary
  • English Language (Reading, Writing, Comprehension and Dictation);
  • Ghanaian Language (Reading, Writing, Comprehension and Dictation);
  • Mathematics;
  • Integrated Science and *Introduction to ICT;
  • Religious and Moral Education;
  • Citizenship Education (Civics, Social Studies, Life Skills and Hygiene);
  • French;(Optional)
  • *Creative Arts (Art and Craft, and Music and Dance);
  • *Physical Education.
new subjects
New Subjects
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
  • Natural science
  • Creative Arts
  • Citizenship Education
  • French
  • The main objective of the JSS programme is to ensure that pupils appreciate the use of the hand as well as the mind. In addition to the objectives set out for primary schools, the junior secondary school curriculum should provide opportunities for pupils to acquire pre-technical, pre-vocational and basic scientific knowledge and skills that will enable them to:
  • consolidate knowledge and skills acquired at the primary level;
  • discover their aptitudes and potentials;
  • induce in them the desire for self-improvement;
  • appreciate the use of the hand as well as the mind;
  • understand the environment and the need for its sustainability so that they may become eager to contribute to its survival
junior high school28
Junior High School

Some Weaknesses identified with the JSS System

  • poor quality teaching by teachers who are poorly prepared to teach at this level;
  • lack of effective guidance and counseling system in the schools;
  • high pupil/teacher ratios especially in some rural and sub-urban areas;
  • ineffective use of contact hours;
  • overemphasis on the grammar (general) education to the neglect of technical and vocational education;
  • inability to strengthen pupils’ basic academic skills (reading and writing) as some junior secondary school graduates can neither read nor write;
  • inability of the system to predispose them to the world of work;
  • absence of performance standards or benchmarks to guide teaching and
  • learning at all levels;
  • poor linkage between the JSS and SSS curriculum.
objectives of senior high education
Objectives of Senior High Education
  • to reinforce the knowledge and skills acquired during basic education;
  • to provide a diversified curriculum to cater for different aptitudes, abilities, interest, and skills;
  • to provide an opportunity for further education and training and introduce students to a variety of relevant occupational skills necessary for national human resource development;
  • to understand the environment and the need for its sustainability;
  • to inculcate a sense of discipline and selflessness in students.
  • to develop an interest for lifelong learning;
problems with the old system
Problems with the old system
  • lack of adequate teaching and learning facilities;
  • poor infrastructural facilities;
  • low number of well-motivated and committed teachers;
  • absence of proper guidance and counselling services; and
  • poor management and supervision;
  • inadequately prepared JHS leavers;
  • Duration of SHS Programme
  • Access and participation
  • Quality
  • Staffing
  • Curriculum content
  • Infrastructural facilities
  • Information and Communication Technology
proposed implementation strategy
Proposed Implementation Strategy

In the short term;

  • Government policy of having one model school in every district should be implemented immediately and should be completed within 5 years to offload burden on so called endowed schools;
  • The computerisation of admissions into SHS should begin in 2003/2004 academic year;
Every District Directorate of Education should set-up guidance and counselling centre to start operating by January 2003. In the short term, interested teachers should be given in-service training and reposted to the offices.
  • GES should task UCC and UEW to train professional guidance and counselling personnel for the regional and district offices as well as the schools;
GES should organise workshops periodically for Heads of Schools and Heads of Departments in second cycle schools on the mode of assessment,. This should be expanded to cover other teachers;
medium term
Medium Term
  • Every SHS connected to electricity should be provided with computer laboratories within 3 years.
  • Government should put in place a programme to cover the remaining schools within a period of 6 years. In the short-term government should provide these schools with electricity generating plants and some computers to expose students to computer studies.
Government should draw up a programme over a period of 5 years to supply all schools with adequate textbooks for all subjects, especially English Language, Mathematics, Social Studies and English Literature;
long term
Long Term
  • The provision of facilities/infrastructure, especially well-equipped Science Laboratories/Workshops in all SHS schools should be implemented within and completed within a period of 15 years.
  • to give students aspiring to pursue tertiary professional programmes, a basic understanding of technical/vocational knowledge and skills;
  • to impart job-specific, career-focused knowledge and skills to students in
  • order to produce a sizeable, well qualified workforce;
  • to equip students with knowledge and skills to make them employable or self-employed;
  • to update knowledge and skills of the workforce in order to keep them abreast with new developments.
classification and streams of tvet
Classification and Streams of TVET
  • Secondary Technical Schools
  • Technical Institutes
  • Vocational Institutes
  • Agriculture Institues
  • Apprentice Training
  • To train the right type of teacher who is competent, committed and dedicated such that s/he will be capable of:
  • Developing attitudes, values and dispositions that create a conducive environment for quality teaching and learning in schools;
  • Facilitate learning and motivates learners to fully realise their potentials; and
  • Adequately prepares the learner to participate fully in national development effort.
weaknesses of the previous system
Weaknesses of the previous system
  • Chronic prestige deprivation
  • Disjuncture between theory and practice
  • Disconnection between the needs of schools and teacher preparation, depriving teacher education of its mission
  • Students admitted to the training colleges mostly are with poor grades
  • Problems with the IN-IN-OUT programme.
  • Upgrading of TTCs to tertiary status
  • UEW and UCC should help set guidelines for admission into the TTC
  • MOE/GES/District assemblies should support the colleges and interns
  • TTCs should involve schools in their catchment areas in planning the OUT programme for teacher trainees
  • should equip teachers with competencies in the content areas and methodologies. Areas to be considered:
  • Patriotism
  • ICT
  • English language
  • Ghanaian language
  • Mathematics and Science
incentives for teachers in deprived areas
Incentives for Teachers in Deprived Areas
  • Be paid 20% of basic salary
  • Given accelerated promotion
  • Be given priority for study leave with pay
  • Universities should reserve a quota for teachers from deprived areas
tertiary education
Tertiary Education

Education offered after secondary level at a university, polytechnic, specialised institutions, open university and any other institution offering training leading to the award of diploma and degree qualifications. In Ghana, tertiary education is provided in both state-supported and private institutions.

  • Develop people with intellectual and analytical mind and enable them to use the knowledge acquired for the benefit of society;
  • Equip with knowledge and skills to conduct basic research
Produce people capable of using research

findings for national development;

  • Produce human capital for various sectors
limitations observed
Limitations Observed
  • Limited access for the target age group;
  • Limited opportunities for academic and professional progression, especially for those who enter the technical/vocational streams;
  • Inadequate opportunity for life-long learning
  • Create Open University
  • Create an Open Community College system;
  • Improve facilities and research;
  • Promote university-industry-Government partnerships
  • Human
  • Material resources (raw material)
  • Teaching and learning materials
  • Infrastructure (viz. physical structure, water supply system)
  • Finance
  • Methodology (teaching and learning)
  • Motivation and incentive systems
  • Discipline
  • Supervision
  • Standard-setting
  • Inspection and monitoring of school and academic performance
Guidance and counselling
  • Admission and retention of pupils
  • Recruitment of teachers
  • Staff training
  • Determination of conditions and schemes of service
  • Assessment of outcomes (quality and quantitative)
  • Monitoring the dynamics of the system
  • Evaluation of the system
the human capital theory
The Human Capital Theory
  • Investing in education has a very high socio-economic return …
major sources of funding within the educational sector
Major sources of funding within the Educational sector
  • Government of Ghana (GOG)
  • GETFund
  • Donors

This Reforms was suggested after seriously considering the strengths and weaknesses in the previous structure and content at the various levels of education, and also at the management and financing of education in the country.

Recommendations made in the report were meant to lead Ghana into developing a vibrant educational agenda that will meet the challenges of the rapid technological development in the 21st century.