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Mycorrhizae Restoration To Inoculate or Not to Inoculate: That is the Question.

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Ethan Cox. Mycorrhizae Restoration To Inoculate or Not to Inoculate: That is the Question. What is Mycorrhizae?. Symbiotic fungi Binds with plant’s roots.

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ethan cox
Ethan Cox

Mycorrhizae RestorationTo Inoculate or Not to Inoculate: That is the Question.

what is mycorrhizae
What is Mycorrhizae?
  • Symbiotic fungi
  • Binds with plant’s roots

types of mycorrhizae
Types of Mycorrhizae
  • Two Types
    • Ectomycorrhizae
    • Endomycorrhizae

restoration and mycorrhizae
Restoration and Mycorrhizae
  • Do we need mycorrhizae restoration?
    • Hmmm….yes and no.
  • What is mycorrhizae restoration?
mycorrhizae restoration is not needed
Mycorrhizae Restoration is Not Needed
  • Olympic Peninsula in Washington state
  • Mount St. Helens Example
  • Prairie Restoration in the American Midwest
mycorrhizae restoration is needed
Mycorrhizae Restoration is Needed
  • Iceland Sand Dunes
  • Minnesotan Taconite Mining Area
  • China and Arsenic
inoculation or not inoculation
Inoculation or Not Inoculation?
  • What are the similarities between sites?
    • Extremely degraded sites
    • Mycorrhizae helped scavenge the few nutrients
  • Should be determined on a case by case basis
  • Allen, Michael F. The Ecology of Mycorrhizae. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. Print.
  • Allen, M. F., C. M. Crisafulli, S. J. Morris, L. M. Egerton-Warburton, J. A. MacMahon, and J. M. Trappe. 2005. Mycorrhizae and Mount St. Helens: story of a symbiosis. “Ecological responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.” V. H. Dale, F. J. Swanson, and C. M. Crisafulli, editors. Springer Science + Business Media, Inc, New York.
  • Dong, Yan, Yong-Guan Zhu, F. Andrew Smith, Youshan Wang, and Baodong Chen. "Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Enhanced Aresnic Resistance of Both White Clover (Trifolium Repens Linn.) and Ryegrass (Lolium Perenne L.) Plants in an Aresnic Contaminated Soil." Environmental Pollution 155 (2008): 174-81. Science Direct. Web. 12 Apr. 2011.
  • Greipsson, S., and H. El-Mayas. 2000. “Arbuscular mycorrhizae of Leymus arenarius on coastal sands and reclamation sites in Iceland and response to inoculation.” Restoration Ecology 8: 144-150. Web of Science. Web. 9 Apr. 2011.
  • Harley, J. L., and S. E. Smith. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. London: Academic, 1983. Print.
  • Hilderbrand, R. H., A. C. Watts, and A. M. Randle. 2005. The myths of restoration ecology. Ecology and Society10(1): 19. [online] URL:
  • Johnson, NC. 1998. “Responses of Salsola kali and Panicumvirgatum to mycorrhizal fungi, phosphorus, and soil organic matter: implications for reclamation.” Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 86-94. Web of Science. Web. 9 Apr. 2011
  • Noyd, Robert K., F. L. Pfleger, and M. P. Russelle. "Interactions between Native Prairie Grasses and Indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Implications for Reclamation of Taconite Iron Ore Tailing." New Phytologist 129.4 (1995): 651-60. ISI Web of Knowledge. Web. 14 Apr. 2011.
  • Requena, N., E. Perez-Solis, C. Azcon-Aguilar, P. Jeffries, and J.-M. Barea. "Management of Indigenous Plant-Microbe Symbioses Aids Restoration of Desertified Ecosystems." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67.2 (2001): 495-98. Web of Science. Web. 11 Apr. 2011.
  • Richter, Brantlee Spakes, and Jean C. Stutz. "Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Big Sacaton: Implications for Grassland Restoration of an Abandoned Agricultural Fields." Restoration Ecology 10.4 (2002): 607-16. Web of Science. Web. 12 Apr. 2011.
  • Smith, M. R., I. Charvat, and R. L. Jacobson. 1998. “Arbuscular mycorrhizae promote establishment of prairie species in a tallgrass prairie restoration.” Canadian Journal of Botany. 76: 1947-1954. Web of Science. Web. 10 Apr. 2011.