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The Physiology and Chemistry of the Brain Change Across the Night PowerPoint Presentation
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The Physiology and Chemistry of the Brain Change Across the Night

The Physiology and Chemistry of the Brain Change Across the Night

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The Physiology and Chemistry of the Brain Change Across the Night

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  1. The Physiology and Chemistry of the Brain Change Across the Night

  2. REM sleep Sleep onset Stage 2 NREM SWS A Good Night’s Sleep

  3. EEG Wake Stage 2 Stage 4 REM EOG Stage 1 Stage 2 REM EMG Wake Stage 4 REM 2 sec Sleep Physiology

  4. Quiet SWS REM Wake Neuromodulation Varies Across the Wake-Sleep Cycle Active Wake ACh NE 5-HT Ach: acetylcholine NE: norepinephrine (noradrenalin) 5HT: serotonin

  5. Regional Activation in REM Sleep

  6. Hippocampal-Neocortical Dialog

  7. Sleep Enhances Memory

  8. • Vipul Patel • Beth Schirmer • Dana Whidbee • LaTanya James Sleep Consolidates Perceptual Learning

  9. Daytime Overnight * * * 20 10 Improvement (ms) 0 6 12 18 24 Test interval (h)

  10. 30 25 20 Improvement (ms) 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 7 Days Time Course of Improvement

  11. 40 20 r = 0.62 p = 0.006 0 6 7 8 9 10 11 -20 Total sleep time (h)

  12. REM sleep SWS

  13. REM Learning Across the Night 0.8 p = 0.01 0.6 p = 0.05 0.4 Pearson r-value 0.2 0.0 -0.2 1 2 3 4 Quartile SWS

  14. SWS 1 REM 4 Training v = SWS1 x REM4

  15. r2 = 0.79 p < 0.0001 Improvement Correlates with Early SWS and Late REM 40 30 Improvement (ms) 20 10 0 50 100 150 200 SWS1 x REM4

  16. Overtraining on TDT • • Dan Luskin • • Sara Mednick • Neha Pathak “24/7” Burn Out!!

  17. no nap 60’ nap 90’nap (n=2) (n=28) (n=13) (n=17) (n=13) +SWS +SWS +REM Naps, SWS, & REM 15 10 5 Improvement (ms) 0 -5 -10 -15

  18. REM sleep SWS

  19. Stabilize SWS Enhance REM Training

  20. 1 2 3 4 • Matthew Walker • Tiffany Brakefield • Alexandra Morgan Sequence 4-1-3-2-4 Sleep Consolidates Motor Learning

  21. 24 20 # Sequences / 30 sec 16 12 10 PM 10 AM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Training Trials (lasting 12 mins) Baseline Post-training Learning Rate Saturates Rapidly

  22. Sleep Enhances Performance 28 p<0.0001 p<0.0001 26 28 # Sequences / 30 sec 24 26 24 22 22 20 10AM 10AM 10PM 10AM 10PM 10PM 20 SLEEP SLEEP

  23. Stage 2 NREM A Good Night’s Sleep

  24. Overnight improvement and Late Stage II Sleep 40 r =0.72 p=0.008 30 % Overnight improvement 20 10 0 25 45 65 85 % Stage 2 NREM sleep – 4th Quarter

  25. Who’s Getting Better?

  26. 13 12 11 10 9 Schizophrenics (seq/30s) 8 7 6 Next day 5 Schizo. Sz. next day 4 Not Schizophrenics 28 24 # Sequences / 30 sec 20 16 10 PM 10 AM 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Retest Next day Training Trials (lasting 12 mins) Baseline Post-training

  27. Not Schizophrenics

  28. Where Are They Getting Better?

  29. L cerebellum (precision) R motor cortex hippocampus medial prefrontal (mapping of intent) (movement sequencing)

  30. Limbic system Parietal cortex (consc spatial monitoring) (emotional task burden)

  31. How Are They Getting Better?

  32. Sleep Enhances Performance p<0.0001 p<0.0001 28 28 26 26 24 24 22 22 10AM 10AM 10PM 10AM 10PM 20 20 SLEEP SLEEP # Sequences / 30 sec 10PM

  33. Sleep Enhances Where Needed 600 200 175 Reaction time (ms) 400 150 125 200 1 1 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 Sequence Transition Sequence Transition

  34. Sleep Enhances Where Needed 25 Slowest Transitions 15 Percent Improvement 5 Uni - 9 Uni - 5 Bi - 5 Bi - 9 -5 Uni - 9 Uni - 5 Bi - 9 Bi - 5 Fastest Transitions

  35. How Smart is Sleep? • Carlyle Smith • Jan Born

  36. 100 100 80 80 60 60 Moves Moves 40 40 20 20 0 0 d 1 d 8 d 8 d 1 Presleep EtOH Control group Complex Problem Solving

  37. 1 9 1 4 4 1 9 60% 40% Subjects gaining insight 20% 0% WAKE/ DAY WAKE/ NIGHT Development of Insight Wagner et al. (2004) Nature 427: 352 1 1 4 4 9 4 9 4 9 ZZZ ...

  38. Semantic Priming paper wrong • Cindi Rittenhouse • Jen Holmes • Beth Schirmer • Lauri Scott (600 ms) wrong thief (580 ms) right wrong (560 ms) Associative Memory is Altered During Sleep

  39. Weak 30 Strong 20 msec 10 0 0.17 0.01 0.01 NREM PM REM

  40. • April Malia • • Denise Maguire • David Roddenberry • • Karen Emberger • • Laura Babkes New Experiences are Replayed at Sleep OnsetHypnagogic dreams

  41. Experts 2 or 3 50% 4.7% Hypnagogic Images of Tetris Group (n) Nights % Ss % Rpts Novices 2 75% 10.4%

  42. NOVICE “Just seeing Tetris shapes floating around in my head like they could in the game, falling down, sort of putting them together in my mind” (JEG - Day 2) EXPERT “…seeing in my mind how the game pieces kind of float down and fit into the other pieces and am also rotating them” (TRP - Day 2) Reports of Tetris Imagery

  43. ASSOCIATED IMAGERY “I see just a little part of the game for a second. It’s weird also, because I don’t see it the way we play it on this computer. I see it like I used to play it at home, where it’s in different colors and stuff like that. And the boxes look a little different.” (EH)

  44. Experts 2 or 3 50% 4.7% Amnesiacs 3 60% 7.4% Hypnagogic Images of Tetris Group (n) Nights % Ss % Rpts Novices 2 75% 10.4%

  45. EXPERT “…seeing in my mind how the game pieces kind of float down and fit into the other pieces and am also rotating them” (TRP - Day 2) AMNESIAC “I see images that are turned on their side. I don’t know what they are from, I wish I could remember, but they’re like blocks” (JEG - Day 2) Reports of Tetris Imagery NOVICE “Just seeing Tetris shapes floating around in my head like they could in the game, falling down, sort of putting them together in my mind” (JEG - Day 2)

  46. Alpine Racer II • Karen Emberger • Laura Babkes Learning Experiences are Replayed at Sleep Onset(Improved)

  47. Alpine Racer II Skiing imagery • 14 out of 16 players (88%) • 42% of first night reports contain skiing imagery • 3 out of 3 controls who only watched Kinesthetic imagery • 11 players (69%) • 1 control (33%)

  48. Alpine Racer Images “I keep seeing all the places where I fall- like, hit the walls. It’s kind of annoying; and then my legs fly up in the air.” (SEC) “I can sort of feel the motions of the game but more not really seeing it.” (MLC) “I envisioned myself skiing, and for a second there it felt like I was skiing backwards - something I used to attempt when I was younger.” (CMD)