Road to Rebellion Unit 2.1
French and Indian War Effects • Albany Plan of Union – Attempt at unity during war. • Ben Franklin’s idea and “Join or Die” snake cartoon • Why did both Britain and some colonies not like it? • Proclamation of 1763 outrage • Colonists see “Redcoats” • Territory Gains – 17 colonies • Cajuns • East and West Florida • Taxes to pay for war
Taxes • Direct and Indirect taxes – what’s the difference? • Prime Minister George Grenville adds new taxes to pay for war. • Colonists felt they were internal taxes, and they should be able to vote on it. “No Taxation without Representation” • Sugar Act (1764) – direct tax but aimed to stop illegal trade with Spain and France • In many ways an enforcement of what laws?
Stamp Act • Stamp Act (1765) – direct tax on legal papers (stamped) • Stamp Act Congress– 9 colonies join together to protest act • Boycotts and later repealed in March of 1766. Why?
Opposition to British Control • Sons of Liberty– protested Stamp Act, harassed tax agents • Daughters of Liberty - How would they help? • Samuel Adams, Dr. Joseph Warren, Paul Revere • Paxton Boys – rural PA – became famous for chant “No Taxation without Representation” • Shows “backcountry” feeling isolated. • Patrick Henry – gives speech to Virginia Assembly – “Give me liberty or give me death.”
Virtual vs. Actual Representation • Virtual Representation • Like a parent looking after you • Britain idea • Actual Representation • True representation • What Colonies wanted • How would that actually be worse for them?
The Growing Divide • 1765 – Quartering Act – Colonists had to house British soldiers. • Part-time jobs by soldiers also upset colonists • 1766 – Declaratory Act – after repealing Stamp Act, Britain issued this saying that they were still in charge. • 1767 – Townshend Acts – indirect Tax on imports • Trials in royal (admiralty) courts – not jury of peers • Led to more boycotts and smuggling
2 Ships • Liberty – owned by John Hancock • Smuggled items w/o paying taxes • British seized w/ “show of force” • Triggered riots, 4000 soldiers set to Boston • Gaspee – 1772 in Rhode Island • Colonist set British customs ship on fire • Defendants set to court in Britain, not in the colonies
Is this the turning point? • Boston Massacre -1772 • Crowd of colonists harassed British guards • Guards fired into crowd, filling five (1st one – Crispus Attucks) • In trial, John Adams defended the soldiers, but who did he say was at fault? • Samuel Adams referred to it as a “massacre” • Paul Revere’s artist portrayal
Tea Time • Eventually all of the Townsend Acts were repealed except for some of those involving Tea. • Tea Act (1773) – helped British East India Company and actually was cheaper than smuggled tea. • But Colonists did not buy it because it would show Parliament’s right to tax • Boston Tea Party – 1773, dumped 342 chests • Led to the Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts • Also known as Coercive Acts • Closed port of Boston until tea was paid for • Expanded Quartering Acts power • Governor could ban Town Meetings • Increased power of Royal Governor • At same time Britain passed the Quebec Act • Said Canada was separate (Canada and Florida colonies never joined Revolution.)
Committees of Correspondence • Formed in 1773 and 1774 • Set up communication between colonies • Why is that important? • Supported Boston • 1st Continental Congress • Met in Philadelphia in 1774 • 56 delegates • Declaration of Rights and Grievances • Would meet again the next year
“Revolution of 1774” • Although not told as much, many areas declared independence and rebelled in 1774 • Several colonies overthrew royal government and set up their own assemblies • Communities starting collecting weapons and trained to fight - minutemen
Other factors • Newspapers and Journals • Mail system helps spread propaganda • Rural discontent • Scotch-Irish people – little respect for British gov’t • Emergence of idea of an “American”
Shot heard around the world • British General Thomas Gage set force to capture supplies and arrest some leaders (Hancock and Adams) • Three men went to warn: • Why is Revere so famous? • At Lexington – 1st shots fired (April 19, 1775) • Who fired them? • Eight Americans killed • At Concord, British confront minutemen again • But on the march back to Boston, over 3000 colonists shot at British army and caused over 250 casualties
Reflection Questions • How did the ending of the French and Indian War actually lead to the beginning of the U.S.? • What was wrong with the various taxes on the colonists and how did they combat them? • If you were in Britain, how would you look at the events from 1763 to 1775 and why? • How did the Colonists win the war of propaganda in the 1770s?
Links • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcYiLWEAXYo&feature=related – video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6ikO6LMxF4&feature=related – School House rock – Shot heard round the world • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-9pDZMRCpQ&feature=related – School House Rock – No more Kings • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZmOe5mFWhWk&feature=relmfu – Review Video • http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/winter96/massacre.html - Boston Massacre and Revere’s Painting