Opposing Class Certification After Dukes , Bayer and Halliburton. Paul Karlsgodt. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Dukes. Think of Dukes as a Swiss army knife, not a sledge hammer. The many facets of Dukes: The Standard of Proof/Review on Class Certification. Commonality.
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The Court addresses use of statistics in three key areas.