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An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein. Chapter 9. PPT by Abe Goldman. Development. Indicators of Development. Economic indicators of development Gross domestic product per capita Types of jobs Raw materials Consumer goods

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Chapter 9

An Introduction to Human Geography

The Cultural Landscape, 8e

James M. Rubenstein

Chapter 9

PPT by Abe Goldman

Development


Indicators of development
Indicators of Development

  • Economic indicators of development

    • Gross domestic product per capita

    • Types of jobs

    • Raw materials

    • Consumer goods

  • Social indicators of development

    • Education and literacy

    • Health and welfare

  • Demographic indicators of development

    • Life expectancy – Infant mortality rate

    • Natural increase rate – Crude birth rate


Human development index
Human Development Index

Fig. 9-1: Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines several measures of development: life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy).


Annual gdp per capita
Annual GDP per Capita

Fig. 9-2: Annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita averages over $20,000 in most developed countries but under $5,000 in most less developed countries.


Employment changes by sector
Employment Changes by Sector

Fig. 9-3:

Percentage employment in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


Telephones per population
Telephones per Population

Fig. 9-4: Mean telephone lines per 1,000 persons, 2002. MDCs have several dozen phone lines per 1,000 persons, while the poorer developing countries may have less than 10.


Student teacher ratios
Student-Teacher Ratios

Fig. 9-5: Students per teacher, primary school level. Primary school teachers have much larger class sizes in LDCs than in MDCs, partly because of the large numbers of young people in the population (Fig. 2-15).


Persons per physician
Persons per Physician

Fig. 9-6: There is a physician for every 500 or fewer people in most MDCs, while thousands of people share a doctor on average in LDCs.


Calories per capita
Calories per Capita

Fig. 9-7: Daily available calories per capita as percent of requirements. In MDCs, the average person consumes one-third or more over the required average minimum, while in LDCs, the average person gets only the minimum requirement or less.


More and less developed regions
More and Less Developed Regions

  • More developed regions

    • Anglo-America – Western Europe

    • Eastern Europe – Japan

    • South Pacific

  • Less developed regions

    • Latin America – East Asia

    • Southeast Asia – Middle East

    • South Asia – Sub-Saharan Africa


More and less developed regions1
More and Less Developed Regions

Fig. 9-8: The less developed regions include Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia.


Air pollution in eastern europe
Air Pollution in Eastern Europe

Fig. 9-1-1: Sulfate emissions in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. GIS was used to map previously secret data on air pollution after the fall of the communist regime. Extremely high levels were found in some of the main industrial areas.


Minerals in africa
Minerals in Africa

Fig. 9-9: Although several African countries have important minerals, the world prices of many of these have lagged the prices of industrial products, services, and energy.


Development and gender
Development and Gender

  • Gender-related development index

    • Economic indicator of gender differences

    • Social indicators of gender differences

    • Demographic indicator of gender differences

  • Gender empowerment

    • Economic indicators of empowerment

    • Political indicators of empowerment


Gender related development index gdi
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)

Fig. 9-10: The GDI combines four measures of development, reduced by the degree of disparity between males and females.


Female male income differences
Female–Male Income Differences

Fig. 9-11: Women’s income is lower than men’s in all countries, but the gender gap is especially high in parts of the Middle East, South Asia, and Latin America.


Gender differences in school enrollment
Gender Differences in School Enrollment

Fig. 9-12: As many or more girls than boys are enrolled in school in more developed countries, but fewer girls than boys are enrolled in many LDCs.


Female literacy rates
Female Literacy Rates

Fig. 9-13a: Female literacy is lower than male literacy (Fig. 9-13b) in many LDCs, with significant gender gaps in parts of the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia.


Male literacy rates
Male Literacy Rates

Fig. 9-13b: There is a gap in literacy rates between MDCs and LDCs as well as between men and women in many LDCs.


Life expectancy and gender
Life Expectancy and Gender

Fig. 9-14: Women’s life expectancy is several years longer than men’s in MDCs, but only slightly longer in many LDCs.


Gender empowerment measure gem
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)

Fig. 9-15: The GEM combines two measures of economic power and two of political power by women. (Little data are available for LDCs.)


Women professional and technical workers
Women Professional and Technical Workers

Fig 9-16: Half or more of professional and technical workers are women in most MDCs and some LDCs, such as Brazil, but only a small proportion are women in most LDCs.


Women administrators and managers
Women Administrators and Managers

Fig. 9-17:

More than one-third of top administrators are women in North America and some other MDCs and LDCs, but 20% or fewer top administrators are women in many other countries.


Women as legislators
Women as Legislators

Fig 9-18: Over 20% of legislative seats are held by women in China, some European nations, and several LDCs. In many other LDCs, under 10% are held by women.


Development strategies
Development Strategies

  • Development through self-sufficiency

    • Elements of self-sufficiency approach

    • Problems with self-sufficiency

  • Development through international trade

    • Rostow’s development model

    • Examples of international trade approach

    • Problems with international trade

  • Financing development


Income and demographic change 1980 2004
Income and Demographic Change, 1980–2004

Fig. 9-19:

Per capita GDP has increased more in MDCs than in LDCs during this period, while population growth and infant mortality have declined more rapidly in MDCs than in LDCs.


Debt as percent of income
Debt as Percent of Income

Fig. 9-20: Many developing countries have accumulated large debts relative to their GDPs. Much of their budgets now must be used to finance their debt.


Foreign investment flows
Foreign Investment Flows

Fig. 9-21: Three-quarters of foreign investment flows from one MDC to another. Only one-quarter goes from an MDC to an LDC.


Core and periphery in world economy
Core and Periphery in World Economy

Fig. 9-22:

This north polar projection of the world shows that most of the MDCs are in a core area north of 30° N latitude. The LDCs are mostly on the periphery of this map.