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Delivery (GD 19 in mouse). Oral Gavage (PND 1). (PND 2). (PND 4). (PND 7). (PND 14). Tissue Dosimetry in the pups and the dams using gas chromatography Analysis of transport proteins (i.e., albumin, lipoproteins) in maternal blood.

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Specific aim

Delivery (GD 19 in mouse)

Oral Gavage

(PND 1)

(PND 2)

(PND 4)

(PND 7)

(PND 14)

Tissue Dosimetry in the pups and the dams using gas chromatography

Analysis of transport proteins (i.e., albumin, lipoproteins) in maternal blood

  • PBPK MODELING OF PHARMACOKINETIC INTERACTIONS FOR THE LACTATIONAL TRANSFER OF METHYLMERCURY AND PCB CONGENERS: IMPLICATIONS OF TRANSPORT PROTEINS

  • Sun Ku Lee1, Manupat Lohitnavy1, Micaela B. Reddy1, Dwayne Hamer2, Cathy L. Bedwell2, and Raymond S. H. Yang1

  • 1Quantitative and Computational Toxicology Group, Center for Environmental Toxicology and Technology, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collin, CO 80523

  • 2Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523

IV. PBPK Model Construction and Experimentation

Abstract

Background

Summary of the Simulation

Further Refinement of Constructed Model

TRANSPORT PROTEINS

A PBPK model was developed to evaluate pharmacokinetic interactions for the lactational transfer of methyl mercury (MeHg) and PCB congeners (PCB 153, PCB 126) in mice. Some published studies suggested: (1) MeHg and PCB congeners could affect the plasma levels of albumins and lipoproteins; and (2) Most MeHg could bind to albumins in plasma, and about 60% of PCBs could bind to lipoproteins in plasma. In order to investigate the effects of lipoproteins and albumins on the lactational transfer of MeHg and/or PCBs and pharmacokinetic interactions, binding of PCB congeners to lipoproteins and binding of MeHg to albumins in plasma were incorporated into the model. Three hypotheses regarding the roles of lipoproteins and albumins were tested using PBPK modeling: First, unbound chemicals could be transferred to the pups. Second, chemicals could be transferred to the pups only bound with transport proteins. Third, the amount of lactational transfer of MeHg or PCBs will be changed only if co-exposure of MeHg and PCBs could affect the levels of those transport proteins. Simulation results showed that the levels of lipoproteins and albumins were important factors determining the amounts of lactational transfer of MeHg and PCB congeners in all hypotheses. The experimental results using lactating mice and their pups showed that co-exposure with PCB congeners increased the lactational transfer of MeHg to the pups and compensated the plasma levels of albumin which decreased by the exposure of MeHg only. These results were matched with the simulation results, suggesting that the first hypothesis may be the mechanism of the lactational transfer of MeHg and the third hypothesis may be the mechanism of pharmacokinetic interactions between MeHg and PCB congeners. Further refinement of the models quantitatively described the pharmacokinetic changes of MeHg by co-exposure with PCBs in both maternal and pup’s tissues. Our approach may improve risk assessment for the mixture of MeHg and PCBs in developing organisms. (Supported by NIEHS R03 ES 10116, and ATSDR Cooperative Agreement U61/ATU 881475).

PLASMA

  • Both MeHg and PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and are recognized as representative neurotoxicants (1;2).

  • Developing brain is highly susceptible to both toxicants because of rapid growth and development (3;4).

  • Pharmacokinetic interactions between PCB congeners have been previously investigated in both lactating mice, their pups, and non-lactating mice (5;6).

  • Pharmacodynamic interactions between MeHg and PCBs have been shown in epidemiologic and animal studies (7;8).

  • No studies focusing on the pharmacokinetic interactions between MeHg and PCB congeners during the lactating period have been reported despite the potential importance of these interactions.

RBC

Diagram of PBPK Model

  • According to the simulation by scenario 1, the lactational transfer of chemicals and the levels of transport proteins in maternal blood could be reversely proportional.

  • According to the simulation by scenario 2, the lactational transfer of chemicals and the levels of transport proteins in maternal blood could be proportional.

  • Pharmacokinetic interactions between MeHg and PCBs for the lactational transfer will be eminent in case that co-exposure of MeHg and PCBs could affect the levels of the transport proteins.

BRAIN

Brain

BRAIN (INORGANIC)

SLOWLY PERFUSED

HAIR

FAT

GUT

BLOOD

LIVER

LIVER

GUT LUMEN

BRAIN

KIDNEY

BODY

INFANT

KIDNEY

Kidney

RAPIDLY PERFUSED

GUT

BREAST MILK

MOTHER

MILK

GUT LUMEN

Experimentation

Experimental Findings

Carcass

Pup’s Carcass

Pup’s Brain

Experimental Design

  • MeHg only

  • PCB congeners only

  • MeHg + PCB congeners

I. Strategies for the Studies

  • Literature searches

  • Hypothesis generation and evaluation by PBPK Modeling

  • Experimental design

  • Further development of PBPK modeling to validate the Hypotheses

PBPK Simulation against Each Hypothesis

Discussion

Pup’s Kidney

Albumin in Maternal Blood

  • PBPK modeling will be a useful tool to form reasonable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of chemical interactions and to validate them

  • The combination of computational modeling and experimental approaches will contribute to both elucidation of toxic mechanisms and risk assessment in a complementary way.

Scenario 1

  • Simulation assuming that transport protein decreased by 50%

50% decrease

Concentration of MeHg in whole carcass (ng/g)

II. Literature Searches

  • Importance of transport proteins in lactational transfer of chemicals (9; 10)

  • Effects of MeHg and PCBs on the plasma levels of transport proteins (11; 12)

Summary of the Experiments

References

Normal level

  • Co-exposure of MeHg and PCBs to the lactating mice increased the lactational transfer of MeHg to the pups.

  • Co-exposure of MeHg and PCBs compensated the levels of albumin in maternal blood at early time points, whereas MeHg exposure decreased those levels.

  • These results suggested that second hypothesis will be a reasonable explanation for the mechanisms of lactational transfer of MeHg.

  • These results also suggested that the pharmacokinetic interactions between MeHg and PCBs for the lactational transfer may be caused by the different effects on albumin levels between single chemical exposure and chemical mixture exposure.

  • Kodavanti et al., (1998) Toxicol Appl Pharmacol153, 186-988.

  • Myers et al., (2000). Twenty-seven years studying the human neurotoxicity of methylmercury exposure. Environ Res83, 275-285.

  • Abra and Raghavan (2000). J Hazard Mater80, 147-157.

  • Boersma and Lanting (2000). Adv Exp Med Biol478, 271-287.

  • Van Birgelen et al., (1996). Environ Health Perspect104, 550-557.

  • Lee et al., (2002). Toxicol Sci65, 26-34.

  • Bemis and Seegal (2000). Neurotoxicology21, 1123-1134.

  • Grandjean et al., (2001). Neurotoxicol Teratol23, 305-317.

  • Yasutake et al., (1989). Arch Toxicol63, 479-483.

  • Matthews et al., (1977). J Toxicol Environ Health3, 599-605.

  • Borlak and Thum (2002). Xenobiotica32, 1173-1183.

  • Lachapelle et al., (1993). J Toxicol Environ Health38, 343-354.

III. Hypotheses based on Literature Searches

Time (hr)

  • Considering the effects of MeHg and PCBs on the levels of transport proteins in plasma,

    1) Lactational transfer of MeHg and PCB congeners will be associated with the transport proteins in maternal blood and

    2) Pharmacokinetic interactions between MeHg and PCB congeners for the lactational transfer will be related to the levels of transport proteins in plasma.

Scenario 2

  • Simulation assuming that albumin decreased by 50%

Specific Aim

Concentration of MeHg in whole carcass (ng/g)

Normal level

To investigate pharmacokinetic interactions between MeHg and PCB congeners (i.e., PCB 153 and PCB 126) during lactational period and to reveal the mechanisms of these interactions with the aid of PBPK modeling in addition to experimental approaches.

  • Two Hypotheses for the Chemical Transfer

Scenario 1

: MeHg or PCBs will be transferred to mammary glands by simple diffusion without binding to the transport proteins.

Scenario 2

: MeHg or PCBs will be transferred to mammary glands by paracellular pathway with binding to the transport proteins.

50% decrease

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by NIEHS R03 ES 10116 and ATSDR Cooperative Agreement U61/ATU 881475

Time (hr)