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Michael Hansen CALDER at the American Institutes for Research 6 th Annual CALDER Conference

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Investigating the Role of Human Resources in School Turnaround: A Decomposition of Improving Schools in Two States. Michael Hansen CALDER at the American Institutes for Research 6 th Annual CALDER Conference February 21, 2013 Washington, DC .

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Investigating the Role of Human Resources in School Turnaround:A Decomposition of Improving Schools in Two States

Michael Hansen

  • CALDER at the American Institutes for Research

6thAnnual CALDER Conference

February 21, 2013

Washington, DC

Acknowledgements: This research draws upon work performed under contract with the Institute of Education Sciences (ED-04-CO-0025/0020). This work does not necessarily represent the views of any affiliated institutions, and any and all errors are mine.

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The presumed role of human resourcesin turnaround
  • Turnaround, transformation models
    • Prescribe principal and/or teacher turnover
  • Teacher and principal quality are most consequential schooling inputs
    • Assume teacher/principal quality are static
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Workforce turnover or human capital development?
  • Which of the two models dominates in past turnaround schools?
  • Results:
    • Evidence of elements of both models playing a role
    • Strong improvements among stable teachers
    • Strong incoming teachers, no evidence on weak outgoing teachers
longitudinal data sources
Longitudinal Data Sources

Florida

  • Math FCAT-SSS
  • Student-teacher linked
  • Spans 2002-03 to 2007-08 years

North Carolina

  • Math EOG tests
  • Student-teacher linked
  • Spans 2002-03 to 2007-08 years
  • Principals
slide7
Decomposing Performance Improvements across Workforce
  • Pre- vs. post-period
  • Turnaround (TA) vs. non-TA
  • 3 types of teachers in workforce:
    • Outgoing
    • Stable
    • Incoming
identifying teacher groups contributing to performance
Identifying Teacher Groups Contributing to Performance

Outgoing

Stable

Incoming

Pre-period

Post-period

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Results are Robust to

Alternative Specifications

  • Are these results sensitive to:
    • How teacher groups are categorized?
    • How TA schools identified?
  • No qualitative changes to the estimated relationships
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Same Patterns of Improvement Observed in Other Schools?
  • What about middling schools with low growth? How do they improve?
    • Replicate identification and estimation in schools that have higher levels of status, but quick improvement in school growth
  • Improvement of stable teachers most prominent in elementary schools; turnover in middle schools
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Summary of Findings
  • Results show strong, robust gains associated with stable teachers
  • Evidence of high-performing incoming teachers, but not outgoing
  • Does not necessarily vindicate either of two workforce models, but suggests mix or spillover
slide18
Important Study Limitations
  • Descriptive investigation of outlier schools
    • Not causal or representative
  • Improvements are absorbed into staff, though other interventions may be at work
  • Not an evaluation of specific treatment; not predictive of current efforts
slide19
Policy Implications
  • Current policy emphasizes human capital turnover
    • Best use of intervention efforts?
    • Can these successes be replicated?
  • Feeds into larger debate about teacher quality
    • Costs of improvement vs. replacement
    • Individual or context-specific effectiveness
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