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Flavor and Physics beyond the Standard Model. Yasuhiro Okada (KEK) June 21, 2007 “SUSY in 2010’s” Hokkaido Univ. . Flavor physics in LHC era. LHC will start to explore TeV physics. TeV = the scale of the electroweak symmetry breaking.

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flavor and physics beyond the standard model

Flavor and Physics beyond the Standard Model

Yasuhiro Okada (KEK)

June 21, 2007

“SUSY in 2010’s” Hokkaido Univ.

flavor physics in lhc era
Flavor physics in LHC era
  • LHC will start to explore TeV physics.

TeV = the scale of the electroweak symmetry breaking.

New physics is most probably related to the electroweak symmetry breaking physics. It could involve new symmetries, new forces, or new dimensions. Ex. SUSY, Little Higgs, extra-dim models, etc.

  • After 8 years of successful B factory experiments, focus of flavor physics is also shifting to new physics searches.

Logical order

Flavor sector

Gauge invariance

Higgs sector

Unless we know what is the Higgs field, we do not know how to write the

Yukawa couplings.

Discoveries may not come in the logical order. “Mystery” ex. CPV in kaon.

Current mysteries.

Neutrino mass, Baryon number of the universe, Dark matter.

content of this talk
Content of this talk
  • Status of quark flavor physics
  • New physics examples

SUSY, Extra dimensions

  • Neutrino and Lepton Flavor Violation

Super KEKB LoI hep-ex/0406071

SLAC Super B workshop proceedings: hep-ph/0503261

series of discoveries
Series of discoveries
  • 2001 CPV in B->J/y Ks
  • 2001 b->sll
  • 2004 Direct CPV in B->Kp
  • 2006 b->dg
  • 2006 B->tn
  • 2006 Bs –Bs mixing at Tevatron
  • D-D mixing
  • All are consistent with the CKM prediction.
is this enough

|Vub|, f3/g

Bd mixing and CP asymmetries


Bs mixing and CP asymmetries



eK and B(K->pnn)

Is this enough?

Fit from tree level processes

Not, to study New Physics effects.

In order to disentangle new physics

effects, we should first determine CKM

parameters by “tree-level” processes.

We know (or constrain) which sector is affected by new physics.

Improvement of f3/g is essential.

essential measurements for new physics searches
Essential measurements for new physics searches

|Vub| from e+e-B factories

f3/g from e+e- B factories and LHCb

The phase of the Bs-Bs amplitude from Bs->J/yf CP asymmetry at LHCb.

Improvements on rear decay observables:

CP asymmetry in B->f Ks, etc.

Direct and mixing-induced CP asymmetry in B->Xs g

Forward-backward asymmetry in b->sll

Roughly speaking, current data only constrain several 10’s%

new physics effects.

susy and flavor physics
SUSY and Flavor Physics
  • SUSY modes introduce SUSY partners.
  • Squark/sleption mass matrixes are new sources of flavor mixing and CP violation.
  • Squark/slepton masses depend on SUSY breaking terms as well as the Yukawa coupling constants.

Quark mass

Squark mass

SUSY breaking


Origin of SUSY breaking


Flavor symmetry, etc.)


(SUSY GUT, neutrino Yukawa couplings etc.)

SUSY breaking terms at the Mw scale

(squark, slepton, chargino, neutralino, gluino masses)

  • Squark/slepton mass matrixes carry information on the SUSY

breaking mechanism and interactions at the GUT scale.

Diagonal : LHC/LC

Off-diagonal: Future Flavor exp.

Top quark: Tevatron

KM phase: B factories

SUSY GUT example => T.Goto’s talk

susy with a minimal flavor violation mfv
SUSY with a minimal flavor violation (MFV)
  • Even in the case where the squark flavor mixing is similar to the quark flavor mixing (MFV), a large deviation from the SM is possible for a large value of two vacuum expectation values (tan b )
  • Effects can be significant for the charged Higgs boson exchange in B -> D tn and B ->tn.
  • Bs -> m m is enhanced by the loop-induced flavor changing neutral Higgs coupling.
tauonic b decay











Tauonic B decay

The Belle and Babar combined result of the B ->tn branching ratio.

This is sensitive to the charged Higgs boson exchange diagram

in 2 Higgs doublet model as well as SUSY models.

New contributions are important for the large tanb case

Charged Higgs exchange contribution

depends on


B(B->tn) vs. B(B->Dtn) ,B(b->ctn) ,B(B->D*tn)

There are four processes sensitive to charged Higgs exchanges.

Although inclusive b->ctn and B->D* tn are measured, B -> Dtn

process is the most useful to constrain the charged Higgs mass

combined with B->tn .






Belle 2007





Y.Grossman, H.Haber and Y.Nir 1995

comparison with the charged higgs boson production at lhc

Belle B->tn: excluded region





K.A.Assamagan, Y.Coadou, A.Deandrea



Comparison with the charged Higgs boson production at LHC
  • The parameter region covered
  • by B decays and the charged Higgs
  • production overlaps.
  • If both experiments find positive effects, we can perform Universality Test of the charged Higgs couplings.

B->tn: H-b-u coupling

B->Dtn : H-b-c coupling

gb->tH: H-b-t coupling

SUSY loop vertex correction

can break the universality.

K.A.Assamagan, Y.Coadou, A.Deandrea









Even within the MFV frame, there can be sizable difference between the

corrections to the H-b-t vertex and the H-b-c(u) vertex.


Effective tanb= tanb x R-1t,c,u


gb->tH+ ->ttn, approximately

gb->tH+ ->ttb, approximately

H.Itoh and Y.Okada

Test of charged Higgs coupling universality

=> Squark flavor structure.

The ratio gives R-1t.

bs mm and susy





Bs->mm and SUSY

Loop-induced neutral Higgs exchange effects

  • SUSY loop corrections can enhance B(Bs->mm) by a few orders of magnitude from the SM prediction for large values of tan b.

This is within the reach of Tevatron exp.

A.Dedes, B.T.Huffman


The discovery region

of a neutral Higgs boson

through pp->bf0->bmm

at LHC and the discovery

region of Bs->mm at

Tevatron and LHC overlap.

B(Bs->mm)=1x 10-8

5s discovery in

pp->bf0->bmmwith 30 fb -1

att LHC

C.Kao and Y.Wang

large extra dim and b physics
Large extra dim and B physics
  • Models with large extra dimensions were proposed as an alternative scenario for a solution to the hierarchy problem.
  • Various types of models:

Flat extra dim vs. Curved extra dim

What particles can propagate in the bulk.

  • Geometrical construction of the fermion mass hierarchy

=> non-universality of KK graviton/gauge boson couplings

kk graviton exchange
KK graviton exchange

b->sll differential Br

T. Rizzo



KK graviton exchange can induce

tree-level FCNC coupling.

Differential branching ratio of

b->sll processes.



P3 : 3rd Legendre polynomial moment

=> pick up (cosq )^3 terms due to

spin2 graviton exchange.

(In both flat and curved extra dim )


(Flat large extra dim case)

kk gluon kk z boson exchange in warped extra dim
KK gluon, KK Z-boson exchange in warped extra dim.
  • In the warped extra dimension with
  • bulk fermion/gauge boson propagation
  • in order for the fermion mass hierarchy, we put
  • Light fermion -> localized toward Planck brane
  • Top and left-handed bottom -> localized toward the TeV brane.
  • Generate tree level FCNC in KK gluon and Z boson exchange.

S(fKs) vs KK gluon mass

1st KK gluon mass


pattern of new physics effects
Pattern of New Physics effects


Large Extra



Different pattern of the deviations from the SM prediction.

Correlation with other physics observables.

SLAC SuperB factory WS Proceedings

neutrino and lfv
Neutrino and LFV
  • Although the simple seesaw or Dirac neutrino model predicts too small branching ratios for the charged lepton LFV, other models of neutrino mass generation can induce observable effects.

SUSY seesaw model (F.Borzumati and A.Masiero 1986)

Triplet Higgs model (E.J.Chun, K.Y.Lee,S.C.Park; N.Kakizaki,Y.Ogura, F.Shima, 2003)

Left-right symmetric model (V.Cirigliano, A.Kurylov, M.J.Ramsey-Musolf, P.Vogel, 2004)

R-parity violating SUSY model (A.de Gouvea,S.Lola,K.Tobe,2001)

Generalized Zee model (K.Hasagawa, C.S.Lim, K.Ogure, 2003)

Neutrino mass from the warped extra dimension (R.Kitano,2000)

Different pattern in the predictions on various mu and tau LFV processes.

m and t lfv in susy models
m and t LFV in SUSY models

In many models of SUSY, off-diagonal

terms of the slepton mass matrixes are induced

from Interaction at GUT /seesaw neutrino scales.

In many cases, LFV processes are dominated by the m->e g amplitude.

Explicit examples => T.Goto’s talk

susy seesaw with a large tan b





SUSY seesaw with a large tan b

R.Kitano,M.Koike,S.Komine, and Y.Okada, 2003

SUSY loop diagrams can generate

a LFV Higgs-boson coupling

for large tan b cases.

(t->3m K.Babu, C.Kolda,2002, t-> mh M.Sher,2002)

The heavy Higgs-boson exchange provides

a new contribution of a scalar type.

Higgs-exchange contribution

Photon-exchange contribution


Numerical results : SUSY seesaw model

We calculated the mu-e conversion, mu > e gamma and, mu->3e

branching ratios in the SUSY seesaw model.

(Universal slepton masses at the GUT scale. Hierarchical neutrino masses.

A large tan b (tan b = 60). The Majorana neutrino mass = 10^14 GeV .)

lfv in lr symmetric model
LFV in LR symmetric model

(Non-SUSY) left-right symmetric model

L<->R parity

Higgs fields, (bi-doublet, two triplets)

Low energy (TeV region ) seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses


Four lepton interactions are dominant among various LFV processes.

In general,

Example of tau and mu LFV processes

A.Akeroyd, M.Aoki, Y.Okada,2006

  • In the LHC era, physics at the TeV scale will be explored, which is connected to physics of electroweak symmetry breaking. Role of the flavor physics will be redefined in term of new findings.
  • Current data on the flavor physics are consistent with the SM, but there are still a large room for new physics effects.
  • In order to distinguish different models we need to explore various flavor processes.
  • The Origin of small neutrino masses are still a mystery. Pattern of charged lepton LFV processes could provide an important clue on the model of the neutrino mass generation.