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ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa Beyond Primary Education: Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa. Session 7D: Transitions between Upper Secondary and Higher Education: Similarities, Pathways and Orientations

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ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa

Beyond Primary Education:

Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

Session 7D: Transitions between Upper Secondary and Higher Education: Similarities, Pathways and Orientations

National and Cross-Border Articulation between Secondary and Higher Education in Kenya

RAPHAEL M MUNAVU

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

i the challenges
I. THE CHALLENGES
  • Limited access: Out of 265,000 students sitting the KCSE annually; about 65,000 (25%) qualify but only 10,000 (GER, 4%) are admitted into public universities.
  • The GER declined from 7.1% in 1995 to 4.2 per cent in 2005! The average for Sub-Saharan Africa is 5%. Kenya’s target is to attain a GER of 15% by 2030.*
  • There are currently 20 private and 7 public universities with an aggregated capacity of 112,500 students. Rapid expansion of HEIs without corresponding growth in resources raises quality issues.
  • Kenya’s education system (8.4.4) is not concordant with that of Tanzania and Uganda (7.4.2.3). This constrains regional cross-border access.

*The comparative GERs are 43% , 46%, 43% and 37% for UK, S. Korea, USA and France respectively.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

ii objectives of the study
II. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
  • To determine the articulation pathways between upper secondary and higher education; and chronicle the strategies used to address access, quality and cross-border provision of higher education in Kenya.
  • To assess ongoing initiatives in East Africa (Rockefeller and DAAD) to create a regional qualifications framework (RQF) to address access and quality at the regional level, and facilitate student mobility.
  • To draw veritable conclusions, and identify best practices and lessons for sharing with others.
  • Methodology: Desktop research; commissioned papers; and interviews with education officials. Data from the MoE, KNEC, JAB, KIE and CHE.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

iii background articulation issues in context
III. BACKGROUND: ARTICULATION ISSUES IN CONTEXT
  • Impacts of Free primary (2003) and secondary (2008) education….. giving a broader base for selection and articulation.
  • Admission to public universities via JAB is restricted (based on universitycapacities) and depends on performance at KCSE.
  • Direct admission of Self-sponsored students (SSP; wef 1997) has accelerated enrolments from 58,500 in 2004 to 112,500 in 2006.
  • Middle level college graduates are also admitted into relevant academic programmes in some universities….. horizontal integration.
  • CHE (1985) ensures QA and accreditation wrt private universities.
  • Entry into regional and foreign universities...a high mobility ratio of 13% in Kenya. Over 20,000 students are studying outside Kenya.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

iv addressing challenges of access quality assurance
IV. ADDRESSING CHALLENGES OF ACCESS & QUALITY ASSURANCE

SELECTED MILESTONES AND THEIR IMPACTS

  • Expanding existing universities and converting some existing tertiary institutions into new universities (ongoing wef 1990/91).
  • Liberalization of admissions via SSP wef 1997. SSP students make up 50% in some public universities. Debates on quality and funding support for SSP students continue.
  • Admission criteria modified in 1987/88 to attract more female students. Over 2,000 additional females have accessed university since 1998. Gender balance in public universities not yet achieved.
  • Admission of tertiary level diploma holders to universities (1999) and mounting School-based teacher education programmes (2000).
  • Major rise (50%) in Govt-sponsored student admissions, by establishing (7) new campuses and enabling national Polytechnics to offer technical degree programmes ( wef 2007).

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

iv student mobility cross border provision
IV. STUDENT MOBILITY & CROSS-BORDER PROVISION
  • The national strategies adopted to expand access and improve quality of higher education in E.A (Kenya, Uganda & Tanzania) are similar. Over (40) universities were established in EA between 1988 and 2005. Tanzania has an Open University.
  • Over 14,123 Kenyan students studied in foreign universities in 2004 (13% mobility ratio). Uganda and Tanzania had 2,454 ( m/r 2.8 %) and 3,909 (m/r 9.1%) students in foreign universities respectively.*
  • There are over 15,000 Kenyan students in secondary and University institutions in Uganda, despite the difference in educational systems.

Tanzania and Uganda students in Kenya’s HEIs are negligible.

  • The pull-effect to Uganda is due to excess capacity at the HE level, lower fees; more entrepreneurial, aggressive & flexible universities. The regulatory and QA agency (NCHE) was established in 2001.

*Nigeria and South Africa had m/rs of 1.2% and 0.8% respectively.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

v lessons and best practices
V. LESSONS AND BEST PRACTICES
  • SSP programmes and differentiated admission routes are sustainable if they are anchored on suitable National Qualifications Frameworks.
  • Establishment of new universities ab initio preferable over transformation of existing tertiary institutions; balance in national skills inventory is assured.
  • Private universities outnumber public ones, have fewer students but are more efficient in provision of gender balance.
  • The hand of national regulatory agencies need strengthening, and capacity for internal (institutional) QA mechanisms developed .
  • Cross-border provision can be realized via an EACATS anchored on a RQF. Reliable statistics on student numbers and mobilities not readily available.
  • Open University and ODL routes expand access at lower per unit cost.
  • Bolder moves are needed to wipe out gender disparities by 2015.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

vi conclusions
VI. CONCLUSIONS
  • Expansion of higher education should be buttressed by robust QA and regulatory frameworks applicable to public and private institutions, and reliable data bases on HE in the region.
  • Expansion should be spiced with appropriate differentiation, to generate distinctive programmes.
  • National Qualification frameworks (to provide for local credit accumulation and transfer) should be established and serve as base/pillars for a Regional Qualifications Framework (to provide for regional CAT and hence academic mobility). Initial focus should be on professional programs eg medicine, engineering and sciences.
  • The ongoing IUCEA/DAAD and Rockefeller CATS initiatives should be mainstreamed within the agreed protocols (Arusha and Nairobi). This will facilitate mobility of students and staff through reciprocal recognition of qualifications and joint accreditation of institutions.
  • The potential of Open University and ODL in Kenya and Uganda should be exploited; while the costly mobility ratio in Kenya should be rationalized vis a vis regional mobility.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

appendix articulation pathways in kenya
UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
  • Doctorate
  • Masters
  • Undergraduate degrees
  • TIVET TERTIARY – (TTI, Industrial, Agricultural, Technical, Professional Colleges)
    • Diploma
    • Certificate

TERTIARY COLLEGES –(TTC, MTC,)

Diploma 3 years

Certificate 2 years

  • NATIONAL POLYTECHNICS
    • (Undergraduate)
  • Higher Diploma
  • Diploma
    • Certificate

YOUTH POLYTECHNIC

(Government Trade Tests) – GTT1, GTT2 & GTT3

Non Formal Education/Employment

Jua kali

SECONDARY SCHOOL – 4 YEARS

KCSE

PRIMARY SCHOOL – 8 YEARS

KCPE

Family, ECD & PRE-PRIMARY – ( 2 – 5 Yrs)

APPENDIX: ARTICULATION PATHWAYS IN KENYA

EDUCATION LEVELS

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

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