Essentials of Pathophsiology. Chapter 23 Disorders of Ventilation and Gas Exchange. Pleural, musculoskeletal, and myocardial pain are similar in description and almost impossible to differentiate.
Pleural, musculoskeletal, and myocardial pain are similar in description and almost impossible to differentiate.
A pleural __________ refers to an abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural cavity.
Both hypercapnia and hypoxemia will lead to respiratory failure if untreated.Question
Rationale:In hypercapnia (PCO2 >50 mm Hg), tissues accumulate carbon dioxide; in hypoxemia (PO2 <60 mm Hg), less oxygen is delivered to the tissues. In both cases, gas exchange is impaired, and respiratory failure will result unless the conditions are corrected (with oxygen, mechanical ventilation, etc.).Answer
Parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall and superior aspect of the diaphragm
Visceral pleura covers the lung
Pleural cavity or space between the two layers contains a thin layer of serous fluidPleural Disorders Decrease Ventilation
Air goes out
Air Comes in
Air comes in
Air is trapped
Open pneumothorax is more life-threatening than tension pneumothorax.Question
Rationale:In open pneumothorax, inhaled air compresses the affected side’s lung, but during exhalation, the lung reinflates somewhat. In tension pneumothorax, a sort of one-way valve exists: the air enters the affected side during inhalation, but is unable to leave when the patient exhales. Therefore, all of this air exerts increased pressure on the organs of the thoracic cage. Unless the pressure is relieved, tension pneumothorax is fatal.Answer
Empyema(em-pī-ē-mə) : pus
Hemothorax: bloodPleuralEffusion—Fluidin the Pleural Cavity
an accumulation of fluid in one or both pleural cavities, often resulting from disease of the heart or kidneys
fluid in the pleural space secondary to leakage from the thoracic duct
Mast Cell Activation
Edema and WBC infiltration
Muscle Spasm with edema
Mast cells’ inflammatory mediators cause acute response within 10–20 minutes
Treat with inhalers
Airway inflammation causes late-phase response in 4–8 hours
Treat with antiflamatoryExtrinsic (Atopic) Asthma
Mast cells release
WBCs enter region
and release more
the bronchi are distended, characterized by sudden violent coughing and copious expectoration of sputum, and which often become infected
A) Inflammation, Fibrosis
B) Hypersecretion of mucus
C) Destruction of elastic fibers that hold the airways open
Which chronic obstructive pulmonary disease primarily affects the alveoli?
Which step in this flow chart will cause the central chemoreceptors to increase respiration?
Which will cause the peripheral chemoreceptors to increase respiration?Consequences of COPD
stale air in
A client with chronic bronchitis has a barrel chest and cyanosis. His pulse oximeter reads 86% oxygenation. His PO2 is 54 mm Hg. His PCO2 is 56 mm Hg.
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Gene Failure
Steatorrhea is the presence of excess fat in feces. Stools may also float due to excess lipid, have an oily appearance and be especially foul smelling.
In a COPD client, exhalation is inefficient and O2 levels in the lungs decrease
Occluded pulmonary artery
Patients suffering from ARDS will be not necessarily be hypoxemic.Question