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Simulation-based tutoring systems. CPI 494/598, April 16 Kurt VanLehn. Classification of step-based tutors. User interface Forms e.g., CTAT Canvas e.g., Andes Text e.g., Criterion Dialogue e.g., AutoTutor Simulation e.g., ???. Tutoring on Process During e.g., Cog Tutors

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simulation based tutoring systems

Simulation-based tutoring systems

CPI 494/598, April 16

Kurt VanLehn

classification of step based tutors
Classification of step-based tutors

User interface

  • Forms e.g., CTAT
  • Canvas e.g., Andes
  • Text e.g., Criterion
  • Dialogue e.g., AutoTutor
  • Simulation e.g., ???

Tutoring on

  • Process
    • During e.g., Cog Tutors
    • After e.g., ???
    • Both e.g., Andes
  • Product e.g., Criterion
  • Both e.g., AutotTutor
prototypes ill defined classes of simulation based tutoring systems
Prototypes (ill-defined classes) of simulation-based tutoring systems
  • Equipment operation & maintenance
    • E.g., nuclear reactor operation
  • Vehicle driving
    • E.g., flight simulator
  • Tactical decision making
    • E.g., defend ship from possible aerial attack
  • Negotiation, leadership, other soft skills
    • E.g., convince an NGO’s clinic to move
  • Lab/field experimentation
    • E.g., discover cause of an epidemic
what s different between simulation based interface vs others
What’s different between simulation-based interface vs. others?
  • Time matters in the sim
  • Heavy reliance on delayed feedback
  • Game-based expectations of sim quality
  • Game-based technology e.g., game engines
  • Just making the sim work – huge!
  • Game-like expense e.g., $1M each!
  • Most research done outside universities
    • Mostly military
steamer very early example hollan hutchins weitzman 1984
Steamer – Very early example(Hollan, Hutchins, Weitzman 1984)
  • Steam plant occupies 1/3 of space on Navy ships; miles of pipe;
  • Engineer of the watch supervises 16 to 25 people who run it
  • Years of experience required
first build the simulation
First, build the simulation
  • Underlying mathematical model – huge!
    • Built before Steamer
  • Objects for each gauge & control authored
    • Visual presentation
    • Hooked up to underlying math model
  • Augment math model: models of faults/failures
  • Math may not be perfect
    • Especially in abnormal operating conditions or failures
  • Validate the sim
    • check that standard operating procedures work
    • Compare real to sim behaviors; many conditions
sim is not an its but
Sim is not an ITS but…
  • Can be used for training anyway
    • Drill to memorize standard op procedures
    • Exercise in handling standard breakdowns
  • Instructor(s) supervises trainees
    • Decides on exercise
    • Sets sim into initial state
    • Watches trainees
    • Gives immediate feedback occasionally
    • Gives delayed feedback: After Action Review (AAR)
problem after training still can t handle non routine situations
Problem: After training, still can’t handle non-routine situations
  • Need a “mental model” of the whole steam plan
    • Helps to diagnose what is causing trouble
    • Helps to hypothesize & test (mentally) repairs
  • This sim is a black box; need a “glass box”
    • Shows multiple levels of detail
    • Should it to be active; can manipulate & watch
    • Animation; real time?
controlling sim via the schematics
Controlling sim via the schematics
  • Can click on schematics to e.g., open a valve
  • Can do “abstract” actions that are hard or impossible to do in real world
    • Replace boiler
    • Raise chill-water temp to 100 degrees
problem can t understand time courses
Problem: Can’t understand time courses
  • Neg feedback loops in steam plant control e.g., fuel flow to boiler
  • Need to see first and second derivatives as the sim is running
    • Add new “gauges” to the sim
    • Some were later added to the real steam plant
  • Need to see graphs
was steamer ever an its
Was Steamer ever an ITS?
  • Only for safety issues
    • Wired to give student immediate negative feedback if certain safety conditions violated
    • E.g., starting a pump without first opening the input and output values
  • Doesn’t know what student is attempting to do
    • Can’t offer immediate or delayed feedback
    • Can’t offer hints
    • Even if it knew goals, can’t connect goals to actions
    • Has no representation of knowledge-to-be-learned
      • Except mental model of the plant itself, which is huge
rides munro johnson pizzini surmon towne wogulis 1997
RIDES(Munro Johnson PizziniSurmon Towne Wogulis, 1997)
  • 15 years later
  • Like Steamer, has authoring system for widgets
  • Has underlying language for implementing Sim
  • Integrates widgets & sim
instructional design procedure
Instructional design procedure
  • Specify objectives; specify scenes
  • Develop sim
    • Graphical objects
    • Behavior rules for each
    • Debug sim
  • Develop lessons
    • Author procedures using the sim
    • Add texts
    • Debug lessons
authoring a procedure
Authoring a procedure
  • Put sim in an initial state; name the procedure
  • Do it
  • End it
three modes for instruction provided automatically
Three modes for instructionProvided automatically
  • Demo mode
    • Tutor executes procedure
    • Student controls pace
  • Practice model
    • Student tries to execute
    • Gets immediate feedback before sim reacts
    • If authored hints exists, gets them
  • Test mode
    • No feedback & no hints
    • Sim does whatever
is rides an its authoring tool
Is Rides an ITS Authoring tool?
  • Procedural training = CTAT = ITS
  • Drill on identifying parts = tutor, but not so intelligent?