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Introduction to Computer Science – What it is, History PowerPoint Presentation
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Introduction to Computer Science – What it is, History

Introduction to Computer Science – What it is, History

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Introduction to Computer Science – What it is, History

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  1. Introduction to Computer Science – What it is, History Some of these slides are based on material from the ACM Computing Curricula 2005

  2. What Is Computer Science? • Science? • Do computer scientists do experiments? (hypothesis, test, evaluate) • Art? • Are there creative elements in computer science? • Engineering? • Do computer scientists build things? • Math? • Abstraction? • A combination of some or all of these? • Something else?

  3. What Is Computer Science? (2) • Theory? • Practice? • Infrastructure? • Configuration? • Development? • Management?

  4. What Is Computer Science? (3) • Systems? • Applications? • People? • Hardware? • Software?

  5. What Do Computer Scientists Do? • Talk to clients and each other • Build systems (hardware and software) • Research possible approaches, tools • Gather requirements for a system • Analyze requirements • Develop test cases for a system • Design solution systems • Design interfaces • Implement solution systems • Integrate systems • Maintain systems (bug fixes, enhancements)

  6. What Disciplines Are Close To/Part Of Computer Science? • Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) has defined several versions of Computing Curricula • CC 2005 lists 5 sub-areas of computing: • Computer Science • Computer Engineering • Information Systems • Information Technology • Software Engineering • http://www.acm.org/education/education/curric_vols/CC2005-March06Final.pdf

  7. Quiz question #1 – which of the five? (IS, IT, CS, CE, SE) From CC 2005

  8. Quiz question #2 – which of the five? (IS, IT, CS, CE, SE) From CC 2005

  9. Quiz question #3 – which of the five? (IS, IT, CS, CE, SE) From CC 2005

  10. Quiz question #4 – which of the five? (IS, IT, CS, CE, SE) From CC 2005

  11. Quiz question #5 – which of the five? (IS, IT, CS, CE, SE) From CC 2005

  12. History of Computing • When was the computer invented?

  13. History of Computing • When was the computer invented? • Depends on what you mean by “computer”…

  14. Early “Computers” • Bones, other objects for counting – B.C. • Abacus (counting and calculating) – 3rd century A.D. • John Napier’s logarithmic tables, slide rule – 1600’s • Blaise Pascal’s machine (addition) – 1640’s • Gottfried Leibniz’s mechanical calculator – 1673 • Joseph Jacquard’s loom (punched metal cards) - 1804 • Charles Babbage • Difference Engine (specialized) designed – 1820’s • Analytical Engine (generalized) designed – 1830’s

  15. Babbage’s Analytical Engine • “Mill” – processor • “Store” – memory • Also, concepts of: • Input and output • Generalized program execution • “We may say most aptly that the Analytical Engine weaves algebraical patterns just as the Jacquard-loom weaves flowers and leaves” – Ada, Countess of Lovelace

  16. More Computing Machines • Herman Hollerith, statistical tabulator for the U.S. Census Bureau, using paper punch cards for data – 1890 • Later created company named International Business Machines Corporation • Quiet period until 1940’s • Mark 1 – mathematical computer with electro-mechanical relays, 1943 • John von Neumann – computer design with input, output, memory, control, and arithmetic/logic unit, 1945 • ENIAC, built by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly – first large-scale electronic (vacuum tubes) digital computer, 1946 • First transistor – John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain, 1947 • UNIVAC, first commercial computer, sold in 1951

  17. Generations of Computing • 1940s and early 1950’s – 1st Generation (vacuum tubes, very large systems, programming in machine language) • 1956-1963 – 2nd Generation (transistors, large systems, assembly language) • 1964-1971 – 3rd generation (integrated circuits, high level languages (e.g. FORTRAN, C) • 1971 – present – 4th generation (microprocessors, new high level languages (e.g. C++, Java, C#) plus 4GL’s (e.g. Structured Query Language for database systems)