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Promotion and Prevention. Approach and avoidance systems. We have talked about approach and avoidance These systems may be engaged broadly Higgins Promotion focus: Focus on positive outcomes Prevention focus: Focus on negative outcomes. Promotion focus. Driven by nurturance needs

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Presentation Transcript
approach and avoidance systems
Approach and avoidance systems
  • We have talked about approach and avoidance
  • These systems may be engaged broadly
    • Higgins
    • Promotion focus: Focus on positive outcomes
    • Prevention focus: Focus on negative outcomes
promotion focus
Promotion focus
  • Driven by nurturance needs
    • Strong ideals--Personality
    • Gain/non-gain situations--Situation
  • Leads to
    • Sensitivity to positive outcomes
    • Seeks hits insure against errors of omission
    • Cheerfulness/Dejection
prevention focus
Prevention Focus
  • Driven by security needs
    • Oughts: responsibilities--Personality
    • Loss/non-loss situations--Situation
  • Leads to
    • Sensitivity to negative outcomes
    • Seek correct rejections/Avoid errors of commission
    • Relief/Agitation
affecting cognition
Affecting cognition
  • Promotion
    • Because it seeks “hits”
    • More time on task
  • Prevention
    • Because it wants to avoid “false alarms”
    • Less time on task
choice effects
Choice effects
  • Promotion
    • Attend both to the likelihood an event will occur as well as the value of the event
    • Frame in terms of “I”
  • Prevention
    • Focus more on the responsibility
    • Likelihood of the event is less important
    • Actions are taken out of obligation
    • Frame in terms of “We”
regulatory fit
Regulatory Fit
  • Regulatory focus may fit or mismatch with task
  • Fit leads to a feeling of fluency
    • May increase preference for an option
  • Fit increases cognitive flexibility
    • Allows people to recognize when a situation changes
  • Fit increases involvement of explicit processes
regulatory fit and exploration
Regulatory Fit and Exploration
  • Tradeoff between exploration and exploitation
  • Regulatory fit increases exploration
    • Exploration is systematic
  • Why does this happen?
    • Regulatory fit may signal that the world is acting as expected.
choice and satisfaction
Choice and satisfaction
  • Need to ensure that focus during choice matches focus during use
    • If use will be in a promotion situation, choice should be made in a promotion frame
    • If use will be in a prevention situation, choice should be made in a prevention frame
  • Choices are made with future satisfaction in mind.
general issues
General Issues
  • Cognitive Psychology focuses on information processing
    • Decisions involve information processing
    • They also involve emotions and motivations
  • Understanding choice requires focusing on both information processing and motivation
    • Dual systems models are a way of thinking about this.
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