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S. Doug Lemon, Psy.D . Getting Out and Staying Out: Improving Offender ReEntry Outcomes. The views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. government, the U.S. Department of Justice, or the Federal Bureau of Prisons. . overview. Why focus on reentry?.

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Getting Out and Staying Out: Improving Offender ReEntry Outcomes

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    1. S. Doug Lemon, Psy.D.

      Getting Out and Staying Out: Improving Offender ReEntryOutcomes

    2. The views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. government, the U.S. Department of Justice, or the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
    3. overview
    4. Why focus on reentry?
    5. Save time and money information sharing collaboration reduced duplication of effort Reduce the likelihood that a released inmate will commit a new crime Reduced recidivism increases public safety Addresses community issues such as homelessness, addiction, public health, and mental illness Benefits of reentry programming
    6. 2 million people incarcerated in the U.S. One out of every 100 Americans 1 of every 31 Americans is incarcerated, on probation, or on parole Source: The Pew Center THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
    8. Local governments spent $109 million on criminal justice in 2006 (U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics) States spend $52 billion annually, mostly on prisons (The PEW Center) 2011 budget request for federal prisons, probation, detention, and courthouse security was $9 billion (U.S. Department of Justice) THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
    9. 600,000 released from prison each year (Hughes and Wilson, 2003) After 3 years, 43% return (The PEW center, 2011) 95% return to our communities. The scope of the problem
    10. We need to be focusing on doing what works to reduce recidivism and to prepare offenders for a successful reentry into society. Reentry and reducing recidivism
    11. “ those who violate the law and victimize others must be held accountable…for the long-term protection of the community, sentencing and corrections should be using the lessons of research to shape practices that reduce offenders’ likelihood of committing crimes and victimizing their fellow citizens in the future…in light of the harsh fiscal realities of the day, both goals must be pursued through the wise use of public resources.” (Nat’l Institute of Corrections) The current situation
    12. 68 percent abusing or dependent on alcohol or drugs 44 percent without high school diploma or GED 30 percent unemployed prior to arrest 16 percent suffer from serious mental health problems 44 percent homeless in year prior to arrest 72 percent of mentally ill inmates have a substance abuse problem (Bureau of Justice Statistics) What research tells us about offenders
    13. exercise
    14. Cognitive Map The offender’s worldview
    15. Changing behavior won’t work Changing attitude won’t work Must change the map! The offender’s worldview
    17. Resistance Denial Change is threatening
    18. D on’t E ven N otice I A m L ying denial
    19. comfort zones
    20. What do we really think about the offenders we work with? What do we believe about their ability to change? What do we believe about our ability to help them change? Our worldview
    21. If we believe inmates are just a bunch of losers who can’t change, are we really going to work to reach out to them? Our worldview
    22. We can only control our part of the equation We stoke offender resistance with our negative attitudes Their comfort zone includes arguing about their belief systems Our typical interventions
    23. Listen Show RESPECT Firm, Fair, Consistent Hold them accountable Own what you teach Crawl into their minds Create environment where offender can be real with you, and you with him/her Effective communication with offenders
    24. In short, be more of an Andy Griffith than a Barney Fife Effective communication with offenders
    25. Offender isn’t challenged this way in his usual social network. You may be the only person challenging his/her belief system in a nonthreatening way. Effective communication with offenders
    26. Every man is my superior, in that I may learn from him. -Thomas Carlyle Effective communication with offenders
    27. “I gave it my best” Effective communication with offenders
    28. Evidence-based practice Best practices What works?
    29. Principles of evidence-based correctional practice: Objectively assess criminogenic needs/risks Enhance intrinsic motivation Target higher-risk offenders Address greatest criminogenic needs Use cognitive-behavioral interventions Determine dosage/intensity of services What works
    30. Target behaviors that reduce crime Be responsive to the offender’s style What works
    31. Instruments may include: LSI-R LS-RNR LSCMI COMPAS Specialized instruments ASSESSMENT OF CRIMINOGENIC NEEDS
    32. Identifies problem areas Predicts recidivism risk 54 items Completed by trained assessors Interview offenders Attempt to verify information with records Lsi-r
    33. History of antisocial behavior/thinking Antisocial associates/family Lack of contact with prosocial others Substance abuse Weak socialization Egocentric/lack of empathy Impulsivity Poor problem-solving and coping skills Criminogenic risk/needs factors
    34. Lack of achievement in “legit” society Not involved in prosocial leisure activities Criminogenic risk/needs factors
    35. Amount of CBT intervention required: High-risk offenders: 300+ hrs. Moderate-risk: 200+ hrs. Low-risk: 100 hrs. What works
    36. During the first few months post-release: 40-70% of offenders’ time should be structured (Bourgon and Armstrong, 2006; Latessa, 2004; Gendreau and Goggin, 1995) What works
    37. Are based on research & sound theory Have leadership Assess offenders using risk &need assessment instruments Target crime producing behaviors Use effective treatment models Vary treatment & services based on risk, needs, & responsivity factors Disrupt criminal networks Have qualified, experienced, dedicated & educated staff Provide aftercare Evaluate what they do Are stable & have sufficient resources &support Programs that work (Latessa, university of cincinnati)
    38. A recent meta-analysis found: CBT reduced recidivism by 25% Some programs reduced it by 50% What works
    39. Best results : 2+ sessions/week Staff trained in CBT Implementation monitored Higher risk offenders CBT combined with other services *Landenberger, N, and M. Lispey (2005). The Positive Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Programs for Offenders: A Meta Analysis of Factors Associated with Effective Treatment. Journal of Experimental Criminology. What works
    40. Community involvement Assist with training offenders Serve as mentors Invite successful ex-felons to speak/serve as mentors/role models/AA or NA sponsors Conduct a job fair for newly released offenders Identify community service opportunities to assist with establishing real work experience What works? Reach in-reach out
    41. Community involvement: Establish a clothes closet Organize a Health Fair, Dress for Success Fair Provide tutoring Sponsor one newly released offender for a year Organize transportation to critical appointments Write letters to or visit inmates What works?
    42. Residential Inmates live in a program unit Incentives such as money or reduced sentence Employ therapeutic community model Treatment continues in the community Drug abuse treatment
    43. Divert nonviolent substance abusers from prison/jail to treatment Usually last 18 months Involve a team approach Team meets with offender biweekly for first several months Random UA’s at least twice/week for first several months Drug courts
    44. Provide progressive sanctions and contingent rewards Involve expedited case processing Reduce recidivism by 8-26% Can greatly reduce juvenile substance abuse Drug courts
    45. Case plans stem from risk/need assessments Use graduated responses Structured, swift, incremental responses Staff receive training in effective offender management techniques Focus on improving relationship between PO and offender Community supervision services
    46. Bonta, et al, (2010) The Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision: Risk-Need-Responsivity in the Real World. Public Safety Canada. 2-year recidivism results-canadian study
    47. Drug prevention focused on fear/emotional appeals Shaming Drug education Non-directive approaches Bibliotherapy Psychoanalytic approaches Self-Help programs Vague unstructured rehabilitation programs Medical model Improving self-esteem “Punishing smarter” (boot camps, scared straight, etc.) What doesn’t work (Latessa, university of cincinnati)
    48. Providing high-intensity services to low-risk offenders increases their risk of recidivism More contact with high-risk offenders Disrupts their prosocial networks What doesn’t work
    50. Some adopt an abrasive style to make it clear they won’t be taken advantage of. Who are they trying to convince? How not to communicate with offenders
    51. Some believe confrontation is the only thing offenders understand. How not to communicate with offenders
    52. Some believe offenders need to know how serious their offenses are, thus justifying disrespect on the part of the officer. How not to communicate with offenders
    53. Goal: To increase client’s intrinsic motivation to change through the exploration and resolution of ambivalence. Goal: Strengthen commitment to change. Motivational interviewing
    54. Four Parts: Expressing empathy Developing discrepancy Rolling with resistance Supporting self-efficacy Motivational interviewing
    55. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is well-researched. Scores of studies with substance abuse and health problems A few with offenders: Harper & Hardy, 2000 Clark et al, 2006 Walters et al, 2007 Scott, 2008 McMurran, 2009 Motivational interviewing
    56. Assess offender’s readiness for change. Readiness is not all-or-none Where is he/she on the continuum? Motivational interviewing
    57. “If you decided to do this, how could it make things better for you?” Motivational interviewing
    58. For more details, see : Motivating Offenders to Change, NIC (2007) Motivational interviewing
    59. During incarceration
    60. The time doesn’t change people It can have a motivating effect, though Incentives increase program participation During incarceration
    61. Inside Out, a SMART Recovery program Thinking for a Change (FREE!) Residential drug programs Residential change programs During incarceration
    62. Community involvement is key During incarceration
    63. Job Fairs Reach Out to community Precede by courses in resume writing, job interviewing, mock interviews Involve probation List of companies who hire former inmates During incarceration
    64. Can gain work experience Apprenticeship programs College courses Computer skills During incarceration
    65. THE FRANKLIN REALITY MODEL-Hyrum Smith, Franklin Covey
    66. Will the results of my behavior meet my needs over time? The reality model
    67. Seven Natural Laws If the results of your behavior do not meet your needs, there is an incorrect belief on your belief window. If your self-worth is dependent on anything external, you are in big trouble. Results take time to measure. When the results of your behavior do meet your needs over time, you experience inner peace. Growth is the process of changing beliefs on your belief window. The mind naturally seeks harmony when presented with two opposing beliefs. Addiction is the result of deep and unmet needs. The reality model
    68. There are “Six Steps to Follow” in the Franklin Reality Model: Identify the behavior pattern. Identify alternative beliefs. Identify possible beliefs driving the behavior. Predict future behavior based on the new beliefs (principles). Predict future behavior based on those beliefs. Compare steps 3 and 5. The reality model
    69. Community supervision
    70. Much less expensive and more effective. Community supervision
    71. Community Based versus Institutional Programs: Results from Meta-Analyses Source: Gendreau, P., French, S.A., and A. Taylor (2002). What Works (What Doesn’t Work) Revised 2002.
    72. “Swift and Certain” consequences Immediate Brief Certain Graduated, progressive consequences Community supervision
    73. Encourage employers to use the Work Opportunity Tax Credit. Tax credit for employers New hire must be felon convicted by federal or any state court. New hire must be within a year of conviction or release. Targets low-income new hires Community supervision
    74. Encourage employers to utilize the Federal Bonding Program Indemnifies employers for lost money or property due to dishonest acts of employees Free of charge No deductible 1% of bonds issued ever resulted in a claim Community supervision
    75. “I wasn’t realizing that my goal was to keep people out of prison, not to make sure that they were model citizens.” Community supervision
    76. Quality steady employment is a strong protective factor (Shover 1996; Sampson and Laub 1993; Uggen 2000) Barriers to Employment: Unemployment rate 10%+ Rate for blacks is 19% (Economic Policy Institute, 2011) Community supervision
    77. 2003 Study by Deva Pager of Northwestern U. Criminal record decreases chance of callback by 50% Race itself was a significant factor (34 vs.14) Criminal record was a stronger negative factor for blacks (17 vs. 5) Community supervision
    78. Community supervision
    79. 93% of child sexual abuse victims knew their perpetrator (35% perps are family members) 64% adult female victims knew their perpetrator intimately Represent 10-30% of prison population 10-20 thousand are released annually 5% arrested for another sex crime in 3 years Recidivism rate lower than rate for all offenders combined Sex offenders
    80. Face a number of barriers: Public stigma S.O.-specific laws Problems with housing Problems with employment Often serve longer sentences Sex offenders
    81. Assessment Instruments: RRASOR STATIC-99 SORAG MnSOST-R VASOR ABEL Visual Reaction Time (VRT)-newly approved plethysmograph Sex offenders
    82. Demand exceeds capacity in prison treatment programs Are not all the same It is our duty to protect them from abuse PREA Sex offenders
    83. High-risk offenders get first priority Tailor programs to level of risk Offer treatment closer to release All staff should be trained Should be subject to enhanced monitoring and restricting access to provocative materials Discretionary release dates provide incentive to program Sex offenders in prison
    84. Link releasing offenders with treatment providers for continuity of care Continue assessments begun in prison Develop and train community volunteers for community support Determine if there is a need for family therapy Anticipate likely housing/employment problems Sex offenders on supervision
    85. Intake screening is vitally important Medical/psychiatric involvement crucial Track med compliance and communicate Staff should be trained Have clear suicide prevention policies Ensure prison mental health staff have autonomy with suicidal offenders Not enough hospital beds for those in need Mentally ill offenders
    86. Coping skills training Co-occurring disorders See mentally ill in chronic care clinics Utilize advanced students when possible Decisions about CCC/RRC, parole, camp status Mentally ill offenders
    87. Ongoing collaboration with probation a must Look for specialized CCC Ensure continuity of community-based MH tx More frequent meetings with P.O. Mentally ill offenders
    88. Focus on education Family is a huge part of the equation Substance abuse High degree of victimization Young offenders
    89. Youth versions of commonly used risk assessment tools have been shown to predict criminal behavior. (Olver, 2009) Young offenders
    90. Suggested programs: Seeds of Success On Solid Ground Thinking for a Change DBT Cage Your Rage (youth version) Young offenders
    91. Connecticut DOC-Manson Youth Institution Youth approved for early release were targeted by peers Started 4-6 week re-entry unit Incidents sabotaging youth early release are almost non-existent now Community partners assist with seminars Pre-scheduled services for releasing youth Young offenders
    92. Second Chance Act National Reentry Resource Center (nationalreentryresourcecenter.org) TJC project website (jailtransition.com) Life After Lockup: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community The Jail Administrator’s Toolkit for Reentry TJC Implementation Toolkit (web-based, jailtransition.com/Toolkit) Reentry Resources
    93. Jail Reentry Roundtable (urban.org/projects/reentryroundtable/roundtable9.cfm) The National GAINS Center (gainscenter.samhsa.gov) Community Oriented Correctional Health Services (cochs.org) Alabama CPR Network (alabamacprnetwork.com) Reentry resources
    94. U.S. Dept. of Justice (crimesolutions.gov) Federal Bonding Program (bonds4jobs.com) Work Opportunity Tax Credit (doleta.gov/wotc) National Institute of Corrections (nicic.gov) National Institute of Justice (nij.gov) Harvard University Government Innovator’s Network (innovations.harvard.edu) National HIRE Network (hirenetwork.org) Office of Justice Programs (ojp.usdoj.gov/reentry) Reentry resources