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Learning Dialogue

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  1. Urban Teaching Conference — May 1, 2008 Learning Dialogue Assessment and Communication in the Information Age Stevan Kalmonskalmon@C21L.org Council on 21st Century Learningwww.C21L.org Rob Beamrobert_beam@dpsk12.org Denver Public Schoolshttp://robertbeam.edublogs.org

  2. Thesis How we assess and how we communicate reflect and reinforce how we learn. • From Industrial Age schooling to Information Age learning • Primary themes • Assessment for learning • Communication for learning Council on 21st Century Learning

  3. Industrial Age Artifacts “No other institution in our society, except possibly prisons, requires so many people to spend such long hours in such close contact with so little privacy or freedom to pursue personal interests and goals.” William Spady & Douglas Mitchell,Authority and the Management of Classrooms (2000) Prison School School School Warehouse Factory School Prison Council on 21st Century Learning

  4. Industrial Schooling • Uniform curriculum • Emphasis on basic skills • Assurance of continuity • Standardized measures of achievement • External motivations for learning • Teachers dispensing knowledge • Hierarchical structure Deborah Walker, The Constructivist Leader (2002), p. 15 “Built on the factory model, [schools provide a] ‘covert curriculum’… of three courses: one in punctuality, one in obedience, and one in rote, repetitive work.” Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave (1980), p. 29 Council on 21st Century Learning

  5. Industrial Assessment • Measurement for quality control • Emphasis on sanctions — rewards & punishments • Separated from the learning process & the learner Council on 21st Century Learning

  6. Industrial Theory of Learning Learning externally molded Presented in ordered chunks Knowledge acquired in hierarchical progression Students motivated by rewards & punishments Student behaviors calibrated based on normalized classifications Behaviorism(~1900-1960) — Learning = connections between stimuli and responses National Research Council, How People Learn (2000), pp. 6-12 Linda Lambert, et al., The Constructivist Leader (2002), pp. 11-14

  7. Industrial Communication • Hierarchical • Chain-of-Command structure • Reliance on “Experts” for info & solutions • Terminal • Communications time-boundaried (synchronous) • Conversation ends when you hang up • Closed • No transparency • All voices are not heard Council on 21st Century Learning

  8. Challenges & Opportunities Information overload Technology convergence Global society Networked EconomyMatrix OrganizationsVirtual Communities Environmental & ethical dilemmas Postmodern digital culture “The future ain’t what it used to be.” Yogi Berra Council on 21st Century Learning

  9. Catch the “Wave” First Wave — Agriculture 4,000 BC Second Wave — Industry1650 AD Third Wave — Information 1955 AD Pre-”Wave” — Hunter-Gatherer Oral Cultures Scribal Print Digital//Electronic Characteristics of Third Wave: “Taking McLuhan and ‘Medium Theory’ Seriously”, by Joshua Meyrowitz (1996) The Third Wave, by Alvin Toffler (1980) Council on 21st Century Learning

  10. Exponential Pace of Change 3rd Wave — Information 2nd Wave — Industry 1st Wave — Agriculture Hunters-Gatherers 4th Wave — ? Assumption: Each “Wave” = 1 Unit of Change One mouse brain 22,000 BC 18,000 BC 14,000 BC 10,000 BC 6000 BC 2000 BC 2000 AD The Third Wave, by Alvin Toffler(1980) Council on 21st Century Learning

  11. Information Overload In 2002… More than 5 exabytes of new info per year(5 billion-billion [1018] bytes = all words ever spoken) • 170 terabytes (1012 bytes) of infoon “surface” Web • 17 times the Libr. of Cong. • 3 to 5 times larger than in 2000 30% increase in info per year— and rateaccelerating Source: How Much Information? 2003, by Peter Lyman & Hal Varian, www.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003/ Images: Plus, plus.maths.org/issue23/editorial/; Rich East HS student gallery (inactive) www.richeast.org/about/artgallery/wirehead.html Council on 21st Century Learning

  12. Information Acceleration 40 Exabytes per Year 30 Exabytes per Year 20 Exabytes per Year 10 Exabytes per Year Annual Creation of New Information Assumption: Constant Rate of Increase = .3 One mouse brain 2010 2002: 5+ Exabytes How Much Information? 2003, by Peter Lyman & Hal Varian 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Council on 21st Century Learning

  13. Where We Could Be • Creativity & Innovation • Critical Thinking & Problem Solving • Communication & Collaboration • Information Literacy • Media Literacy • ICT (Information, Communications, & Technology) Literacy Learning &Innovation Skills Core Subjects & 21st Century Themes Information, Media, & Technology Skills Life &Career Skills Use technology to access, manage, integrate and evaluate information, construct knowledge, and communicate with others • Flexibility & Adaptability • Initiative & Self-Direction • Social & Cross-Cultural Skills • Productivity & Accountability • Leadership & Responsibility Standards &Assessments Curriculum & Instruction Professional Development Learning Environments Source: Partnership for 21st Century Skillshttp://www.21stcenturyskills.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=254&Itemid=120 Council on 21st Century Learning

  14. What’s Essential? HABITS • AASL Standards: 21st Century Learner • Learners use skills, resources, and tools to: • Inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge. • Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge. • Share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society. • Pursue personal and aesthetic growth. • Within each area: • Skills • Dispositions in Action • Responsibilities • Self-Assessment Strategies American Association of School Librarians, Standards for the 21st Century Learner, www.ala.org/ala/aasl/aaslproftools/learningstandards/standards.cfm Council on 21st Century Learning

  15. 21st Century Learners • Information citizens • Knowledge creators • Creative and collaborative • Culturally proficient • “Glocally” engaged • Courageous • Wise • Finding their way Images: Eugene Thinking - www.astro.ucla.edu/~eugene/academics/acpage.html Flammarion Woodcut - www.tobinmueller.com/artsforge/visionforge/discov.html Council on 21st Century Learning

  16. Rethink Learning Emphasize skills. Promote a journey. Transform students into learners. Council on 21st Century Learning

  17. Information Theory of Learning Learning internally developed Acquired in context, based on existing frameworks Knowledge assimilated through schema Learner motivated intrinsically and through socialization Learner supported through assessment and feedback Constructivism(1950-…)— Learning = building new knowledge based on what is already known National Research Council, How People Learn (2000), pp. 6-12 Linda Lambert, et al., The Constructivist Leader (2002), pp. 11-14

  18. Information-Based Assessment • Authentic measures of learning • Fair opportunities to show learning • Contribute to a learning dialogue Teachers Students • Diagnose learning needs • Plan learning • Provide feedback • Monitor progress • Motivate learning Council on 21st Century Learning

  19. Assessment as Dialogue Dylan William, Director, Learning and Teaching Research Center-ETS, 2006

  20. Assessment for Dialogue Assessment of learning:How much have students learned at a point in time? • Rank • Sort • Certify competence • Grade • Assure accountability Teacher/Institution to student Assessment for learning:Where is the student on the journey to the learning goals? • Determine strengths • Identify needs • Devise strategies • Provide feedback • Motivate Teacher & student in learning community Council on 21st Century Learning

  21. Impact of Assessment for… 1.0 Standard Deviation Score Gain Equals: • 35 Percentile Points • 2-4 Grade Equivalents • 100 SAT Score Points • 5 ACT Composite Score Points Council on 21st Century Learning

  22. Examples of Assessment for… • Rubric-based self-assessment • Assessment Cards • Short-Constructed Response • Reading Letters • Reflection at end of assignments • Reflection at end of class • Traffic Light • Thumbs up/thumbs down • Handheld response systems (clickers) • Highlighting rubrics • Comparing work to exemplars • Logs or journals • Sorting work examples into categories of performance • Writer’s notebook • Conferencing Council on 21st Century Learning

  23. Example: Progress Monitoring Council on 21st Century Learning

  24. Communication for Learning • No Hierarchy • Peer-to-peer • Shared expertise • Asynchronous • Time independent • The “conversation” continues over time • Open • Transparent & multi-leveled • All voices all access • Reflection Council on 21st Century Learning

  25. From Students to Learners Student Engages in activities Receives grades or evaluative comments Negotiates for grades Learner Identifies learning focus Describes performance in relationship to proficiency Receives/applies feedback on work & learning Self-assesses Monitors progress towards learning goals Dialogues about learning progress

  26. Knowledge Management • Groundhog Day practice — Use it & lose it • How did we do that last time? • How did they do that? • Goodness, we’ll miss you when you’re gone! • KM practice —Compilation through reflection • Whole greater than sum of parts • Time invested creates time saved Council on 21st Century Learning

  27. Reflection & Application • Make notes: Reflect on what you’ve heard today. • Share with a colleague: • How do these ideas connect with other ideas you’ve heard at the conference? and/or • How do these ideas apply to your work? • Groups of 4-5: Discuss common ground and/or elements of this session that generate disequilibrium. Council on 21st Century Learning

  28. Recommended Reading • Anderson, L., et al. (2000). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. • Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B. and Wiliam, D. (2003). Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice. • Clarke, S. (2005). Formative assessment in action: Weaving the elements together and Formative assessment in the secondary classroom • Map of Future Forces Affecting Education, by The Knowledge Works Foundation and the Institute for the Future, www.kwfdn.org/map/ • “Framing Reform for the New Millennium: Leadership Capacity in Schools and Districts,” by Linda Lambert. In Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy (April 12, 2000) • Lambert, L., et al. (2002). The constructivist leader. • Marshall, S. (2006). The power to transform. • National Research Council (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. • “What is Web 2.0 — Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software” (9/30/05), by Tim O’Reilly, www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html • Popham, W.J. (2008). Transformative assessment. • “Teaching and Learning in the Educational Communities of the Future,” by Margaret Riel. In Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1998), Chris Dede, ed. • The Third Wave (1980), by Alvin Toffler • Leadership and the New Science (1999), by Margaret Wheatley http://robertbeam.edublogs.org Robert_Beam@dpsk12.orgStevan Kalmon@C21L.org www.C21L.org Council on 21st Century Learning

  29. Map of Future Forces Ad hoc networked groups break the rules to catlyze change Dilemma: Build community from competitive division Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, Ambiguity — lack of shared norms & greater instability Knowledge Works Foundation — www.kwfdn.org/map/map.aspx Council on 21st Century Learning

  30. Cognitive Processing Perspective Bloom’s Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom (1956) Council on 21st Century Learning

  31. “New” Bloom’s Knowledge Domains Conceptual Procedural Metacognitive Factual Types of Cognitive Process Anderson & Krathwohl, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing (2001) Council on 21st Century Learning

  32. Inquiry into How We Learn • Recall a powerful learning experience.Criteria — • Took place over an extended time (at least weeks) • The learning has stayed with you • Share examples: What do they tell us about powerful learning? • How was your learning assessed? Council on 21st Century Learning

  33. “Minds On” Learning • Access prior knowledge & understanding • Develop content depth (not breadth), emphasizing conceptual structures • Explicitly teach metacognitive skills • Reflection • Self-assessment (What worked? What needs improving?) • Monitoring progress towards goals • Sense making National Research Council, How People Learn (2000) Council on 21st Century Learning

  34. Stage 1: What’s Essential? • Readiness — Necessary for the next level of learning • Foundation/preparation for next level • Developmentally appropriate • Sequence and spiral • Endurance — Lasting value; connected to life experience • Accountability — Success in mandated areas • State/Federal Mandates (e.g., CSAP, CBLA, AYP, SAR) • CCHE/College Requirements • Graduation Requirements • Parent/Community expectations • Leverage — Value across disciplines & types of cognitive processing Doug Reeves; Larry Ainsworth Council on 21st Century Learning

  35. Where We Are Sample of standards across the nation. McREL — www.mcrel.org/standards-benchmarks/docs/process.asp (accessed 1/12/08) Council on 21st Century Learning

  36. Targets First • See it to hit it • Think “REAL” • Readiness • Endurance • Accountability • Leverage • Think skills & cognitive processing Council on 21st Century Learning

  37. Environment for Assessment What do students need to learn? How will we know they’re learning? How do we design their learning? Understanding by Design • Targets (Stage 1) • Assessment(Stage 2) • Activities (Stage 3) • Ready…Aim… • Fire… UbD Wiggins & McTighe, Understanding by Design (2005) Council on 21st Century Learning

  38. Authentic Measures Matching learning targets and assessments Ainsworth and Viegut, Common Formative Assessment (2006) Council on 21st Century Learning