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Chapter 9
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  1. Chapter 9 • Principles of Exercise Training

  2. Terminology:Muscular Strength • Strength: maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate • Static strength • Dynamic strength (varies by speed and joint angle) • 1 repetition maximum (1RM): maximal weight that can be lifted with a single effort • Start with proper warm-up • Add weight until only 1 repetition can be performed

  3. Terminology:Muscular Power • Muscular power: rate of performing work • Explosive aspect of strength • Power = force x (distance/time) • Power more important than strength for many activities • Field tests not very specific to power • Typically measured with electronic devices

  4. Terminology:Muscular Endurance • Endurance: capacity to perform repeated muscle contractions (or sustain a single contraction over time) • Number of repetitions at given % 1RM • Increased through • Gains in muscle strength • Changes in local metabolic, cardiovascular function

  5. Terminology:Aerobic Power • Aerobic power: rate of energy release by oxygen-dependent metabolic processes • Maximal aerobic power: maximal capacity for aerobic resynthesis of ATP • Synonyms: aerobic capacity, maximal O2 uptake, VO2max • Primary limitation: cardiovascular system • Can be tested in lab or estimated from wide variety of field tests

  6. Terminology:Anaerobic Power • Anaerobic power: rate of energy release by oxygen-independent metabolic processes • Maximal anaerobic power: maximal capacity of anaerobic systems to produce ATP • Also known as anaerobic capacity • Maximal accumulated O2 deficit test • Critical power test • Wingate anaerobic test

  7. General Principles of Training:Principle of Individuality • Not all athletes created equal • Genetics affects performance • Variations in cell growth rates, metabolism, and cardiorespiratory and neuroendocrine regulation • Explains high versus low responders

  8. General Principles of Training:Principle of Specificity • Exercise adaptations specific to mode and intensity of training • Training program must stress most relevant physiological systems for given sport • Training adaptations highly specific to type of activity, training volume, and intensity

  9. General Principles of Training:Principle of Reversibility • Use it or lose it • Training  improved strength and endurance • Detraining reverses all gains

  10. General Principles of Training:Principle of Progressive Overload • Must increase demands on body to make further improvements • Muscle overload: muscles must be loaded beyond normal loading for improvement • Progressive training: as strength , resistance/repetitions must  to further  strength

  11. General Principles of Training:Principle of Variation • Also called principle of periodization • Systematically changes one or more variables to keep training challenging • Intensity, volume, and/or mode –  Volume/ intensity –  Volume/ intensity • Macrocycles versus mesocycles

  12. Resistance Training Programs:Training Needs Analysis • First appropriate step in designing and prescribing appropriate resistance training program identifies • Muscle groups to target • Type of training • Energy system to stress • Injury prevention needs • Specifics of resistance training program design based on needs analysis

  13. Resistance Training Programs:Strength, Hypertrophy, and Power • Should involve concentric (CON), eccentric (ECC), and isometric contractions • CON strength maximized by ECC • ECC benefits action-specific movements • Exercise order • Large muscle groups before small, multijoint before single joint, high intensity before low intensity • Rest periods based on experience • Novice, intermediate lifters: 2 to 3 min between sets • Advanced lifters: 1 to 2 minutes between sets

  14. Interaction of Loading & Reps Power?? Strength Endurance 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16.. Repetitions Maximum Heavy(100%) Moderate (70%) Light (50%) Resistance

  15. Resistance Training Programs:Static-Contraction Resistance • Muscle force without muscle shortening • Also called isometric training • Early evidence showed great promise • Later evidence did not support early findings • Isometric training nonetheless still popular • Ideal for immobilized rehab situations

  16. Resistance Training Programs:Free Weights Versus Machines • Free weights (constant resistance) • Tax muscle extremes but not midrange • Recruit supporting and stabilizing muscles • Better for advanced weight lifters • Machines • May involve variable resistance • Safer, easier, more stable, better for novices • Limit recruitment to targeted muscle groups

  17. Resistance Training Programs:Dynamic Eccentric Training • Emphasizes ECC phase of contraction • In this phase, muscle’s ability to resist force greater than with CON training • Theoretically produces  strength gains versus CON • Early ECC versus CON research equivocal • More support from recent studies • ECC + CON workouts maximize strength gains • ECC important for muscle hypertrophy

  18. Resistance Training Programs:Variable-Resistance Training • Resistance  in weakest ranges of motion,  in strongest ranges • Muscle works against higher percentage of its capacity at each point in range of motion • Basis for several popular machines

  19. Resistance Training Programs:Isokinetic Training • Movement at a constant speed • Angular velocity can range from 0 to 300°/s • Strong force opposed by more resistance • Weak force opposed by less resistance • Resistance from electronics, air, or hydraulics • Theoretically allows maximal contraction at all points in range of motion

  20. Resistance Training Programs:Plyometrics • Also known as stretch-shortening cycle exercise • Uses stretch reflex to recruit motor units • Stores energy during ECC, released during CON • Example: deep squat to jump to deep squat • Proposed to bridge gap between speed and strength training

  21. Resistance Training Programs:Electrical Stimulation • Pass current across muscle or motor nerve • Ideal for recovery from injury or surgery • Reduces strength loss during immobilization • Restores strength and size during rehab • No evidence of further supplemental gains in healthy, training athletes

  22. Resistance Training Programs:Core Stability and Strength • Core: trunk muscles around spine and viscera • Abdominal muscles • Gluteal muscles, hip girdle • Paraspinal, other accessory muscles • Yoga, Pilates, tai chi, physioball • Proximal stability aids distal mobility

  23. Resistance Training Programs:Core Stability and Strength • May decrease likelihood of injury • Increases muscle spindle sensitivity • Permits greater state of readiness for joint loading • Protects body from injury • Core musculature mostly type I fibers, responds well to multiple sets and high reps

  24. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training • Train sport-specific metabolic systems • Programs designed along a continuum from short sprints to long distances • Sprints: ATP-PCr (anaerobic) • Long sprint/middle distance: glycolytic (anaerobic) • Long distance: oxidative system (aerobic)

  25. Table 9.2

  26. Table 9.2 (continued)

  27. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Interval Training • Repeated bouts of high/moderate intensity interspersed with rest/reduced intensity • More total exercise performed by breaking into bouts • Same vocabulary as resistance training: sets, repetitions, time, distance, frequency, interval, rest • Example • Set 1: 6 x 400 m at 75 s (90 s slow jog) • Set 2: 6 x 800 m at 180 s (200 s jog-walk)

  28. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Interval Training • Appropriate for all sports and activities • For given sport, first choose mode, then adjust • Rate of exercise interval • Distance of exercise interval • Number of repetitions and sets per training session • Duration of rest/active recovery • Type of activity during active recovery • Frequency of training per week

  29. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Exercise Interval Intensity • Determined by duration/distance or % HRmax • Duration and distance more practical • One method: Use best time at a set distance, adjust duration by desired intensity • Intensity depends on fitness, number sets/reps, etc. • ATP-PCr system training ~90 to 98% intensity • Anaerobic glycolytic training ~80 to 95% intensity • Aerobic oxidative training ~75 to 85% intensity

  30. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Exercise Interval Intensity • % HRmax a better index of physiological stress • HRmax determined by lab test, all-out run • ATP-PCr training ~90 to 100% HRmax • Anaerobic glycolytic training ~85 to 100% HRmax • Aerobic-oxidative training ~70 to 90% HRmax • Heart rate monitors helpful for recording HR for duration of workout

  31. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Distance of Interval • Determined by requirements of activity • Sprint training: 30 to 200 m (even 400 m) • Distance training: 400 to 1,500+ m

  32. Repetitions and Sets per Session • Largely sport specific • Short, intense intervals  more repetitions and sets • Longer intervals  fewer repetitions and sets

  33. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Duration of Rest Interval • Depends on how rapidly athlete recovers • Based on HR recovery (fitness and age dependent) • <30 years: HR should drop to 130 to 150 beats/min • >30 years: subtract 1 beat for every year over 30 • For active recovery between sets, HR <120 beats/min

  34. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Activity During Rest Interval • Exercise intensity  recovery intensity  • With better fitness,  intensity or  rest duration • Land training: slow or rapid walk or jog • Swimming: slow swimming or total rest

  35. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Frequency of Training • Depends on purpose of interval training • World-class runner: 5 to 7 times/week • Swimmers: interval training every workout • Team sports: 2 to 4 times/week

  36. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Continuous Training • Training without intervals • Targets oxidative, glycolytic systems • Can be high or low intensity • High intensity near race (85 to 95% HRmax) • Low intensity: LSD training

  37. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: LSD Training • Long, slow distance • Train at ~60 to 80% HRmax (50 to 75% VO2max) • Popular, safe • However, must train near race pace, too • Main objective: distance, not speed • Up to 15 to 30 mi/day, 100 to 200 mi/week • Less cardiorespiratory stress • Greater joint/muscle stress, overuse injuries

  38. Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Fartlek Training • Vary pace from sprint to jog at discretion • Continuous training + interval elements • Primarily used by distance runners • Fun, engaging, variety • Supplements other types of training