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The Settlement of the Chesapeake & other Southern Colonies Susan Pojer / Pamela K. Montague
English – John Cabot, 1497 Newfoundland, NE coast N.Am. French Verrazano, 1524, Carolina up to Nova Scotia Cartier, 1534 – St. Lawrence River BUT, neither French or English are serious rivals in beginning, why? Too much internal conflict; Protestant Reformation Intense rivalry soon develops though between Catholic Spain and Protestant England By 17th century, each power has major outpost in North America Spanish – Santa Fe, 1610 French – Quebec, 1608 English – Jamestown, 1607 The Planting of English America Spain’s European Rivals:
English Colonization Elizabeth I • Takes the throne in 1588 & rivalry with Spain intensifies • Crushes the Irish mercilessly – Protestant landlords • Too weak to break Spanish monopoly in New World so… • Encourages plunder of Spanish ships and raiding of Spanish settlements; SIR FRANCIS DRAKE • Attempts to settle at Newfoundland – Sir Humphrey Gilbert / unsuccessful • Laws of primogeniture (only eldest son can inherit land) encouraged younger sons to explore/ seek fortune
English Colonization Virginia • Sir Walter Raleigh to VA in 1585 • Establishes Roanoke – known as the “Lost Colony” – WHY? Who is Virginia Dare? • What delayed the English supply ship headed to Roanoke in 1588? • attack of the Spanish Armada • England defeats Spain & finally breaks SP monopoly in New World • Effects of Defeat of the SP Armada: • Strong sense of nationalism…Shakespeare • Gov’t support of colonization • Strong, popular monarch & religious unity • Set England on path to world dominance
English Colonization Virginia • The Charter of the Virginia Company of London, 1606: • Guaranteed to colonists the same rights as Englishmenas if they had stayed in England – will be incorporated into future colonial documents. • Colonists felt that, even in the Americas, they had the rights of Englishmen!
England Plants the Jamestown “Seedling” • Late 1606 VA Co. sends out 3 ships • Purpose of expedition? • Spring 1607 land at mouth of Chesapeake Bay. • Attacked by Indians and move on up the bay. • May 24, 1607approx. 144 colonists [all men] land at Jamestown, along banks of James River • Easily defended, but swarming with disease-causing mosquitoes.
Jamestown Settlement, 1607 The Godspeed, Discovery, and Susan Constant
Chesapeake Bay Geographic/environmental problems??
The Jamestown Nightmare • 1606-1607 - 40 people died on the voyage • 1609 - another ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off Bermuda. • Settlers died from disease, malnutrition, starvation – only 60 of 400 survive “starving time” winter 1609-1610 …why? • Early“Gentlemen” colonists would not work • Game in forests & fish in river uncaught. • Wasted time looking for gold instead • Merchant directors – ineffective guidance HOW BAD WAS THE STARVING TIME?
Becomes expert forager & Indian trader Asks London Co. for farmers, carpenters, masons, etc. Stays in colony only 2 years, but it would have perished without him Those who don’t work, Eat! Took over in 1608 Captain John Smith:The Right Man for the Job?? “There was no talk…but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold…”
Pocahontas Pocahontas “saves” Captain John Smith What actually happened? Four Faces of Pocahontas
Chief Powhatan • Powhatan Confederacy • Powhatan dominated a few dozen small tribes in the James River area when the English arrived. • The English called allIndians in the areaPowhatans. • Powhatan probably sawthe English as allies in his struggles to control other Indian tribes in the region.
PowhatanIndian Village Indian Foods Smith’s Portrayal of Indians Interpretation?
Culture Clash in the Chesapeake • Relations between Indians & settlers grew worse – why? • General mistrust because of different cultures & languages. • English raided Indian food supplies during the starving times. • 1610-1614 First Anglo-Powhatan War • De La Warr (came in 1610) had orders to make war on the Indians. • Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields.
Culture Clash in the Chesapeake • 1614-1622 peace between Powhatans and the English. • 1614 peace sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to Englishman John Rolfe.
Culture Clash in the Chesapeake • 1622-1644 periodic attacks between Indians and settlers. • 1622 Indians attacked the English, killing 347 [including John Rolfe]. • Virginia Co. called for a “perpetual war” against the Native Americans; raids drove native population further westward. • 1644-1646 Second Anglo-Powhatan War – Indians lose • Powhatanssuffered from 3 D’s – disease, disorganization, disposability • Peace Treaty of 1646 removed the Powhatans from their original land….. Separate area (origins of reservations).
John Rolfe What finally made the colony prosperous??
Tobacco! 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 poundsof tobacco. 1622— Virginia produces 60,000 poundsof tobacco. 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 poundsof tobacco. 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000pounds!
Virginia: “Child of Tobacco” • Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy: • Vital role in putting VA on a firm economic footing. • Ruinous to soil when continuously planted – leads to continuous desire for more LAND! • Chained VA’s economy to a single crop. • Promoted headrightsystem - what is it? • Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system. • Need for cheap, abundant labor.
What 2 reasons caused 1619 to be a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement? • First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619. • Their status was not clear perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants. • Slavery not that important until the end of the 17c. • And… • HOUSE OF BURGESSES • was established
Growing Political Power • The House of Burgesses – 1st representative form of gov’tin America • began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England • Control over finances, militia, etc. • By the end of the 17c, H of B was able to initiate legislation (laws). • Mainly run by leading planters • The high death rates in VA ensured a rapid turnover of members in the H of B
Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony • James I grew hostile to Virginia • He hated tobacco. • He distrusted the House of Burgesses which he called a seminary of sedition. What is “sedition?” • 1624 he revoked the charter of the bankrupt VA Company. • Thus, VA became a royal colony, under the King’s direct control.
Indentured Servitude Origins Indenture Marks The term indentured servant derives its name from the indenture, or mark on two copies of the contract the master and the servant signed. To prevent one of the parties from trying to alter the contract, the two copies of the contract were laid on top of one other, and identical marks were made. If anyone questioned the contract, the two pieces of paper would be placed on top of one other to try match the marks. This contract has been indentured. This contract has been marked, but not yet indentured.
Indentured Servitude • Headright System – who benefitted? • Each Virginian got 50 acres for each laborer whose passage he paid. System used in MD also. • 100,000 in VA/MD by 1700 – cheaper than slaves • Indenture Contract – general terms? • Mostly young men, 15-25, white • 4 years (skilled) -7 years (unskilled) • Promised “freedom dues” [land, £, clothing, two hoes, three barrels of corn, and fifty acres of land] • Forbidden to marry; no travel without permission. • 1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!
Frustrated Freemen • Majority of VA settlers came as indentured servants • By late 1600s large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area. • Little access to land or women for marriage. • 1670 The Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men. Meaning? • Took away right to vote!
Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676 • Led 1,000 frustrated freeman/Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley • Rebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians. • Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area. • Berkley refused to retaliate for Indian attacks on frontier settlements. Nathaniel Bacon GovernorWilliam Berkeley
Bacon’s Rebellion • Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites. • Governor Berkeley was driven from Jamestown. • Rebels burned the capital and then went on a rampage of plundering. • Bacon died suddenly of fever. • Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels.
Results of Bacon’s Rebellion • It exposed resentments between inland (western) frontiersmen and landless former servants against gentry/upper class on coastal plantations. (East-West Conflict) • Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities which will continue throughout American history! • Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel BLACK SLAVES!!
Colonial Slavery • Beginning in 1662 “Slave Codes” • Made blacks [and their children] chattel(property) for the lifetime of white masters. • In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write. • Conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom.
Reasons for switch from Servants to Slaves: Bacon’s rebellion – planters fearful of mutinous former servants Rising wages in England so less willing to gamble on indentured servitude Royal African Company loses monopoly on carrying slaves to colonies (RI becomes big slave trader). Servants wanted land – no one would want to give land to black slaves.
The Settlement of Maryland • A royal charter wasgranted to George Calvert, • Lord Baltimore, in 1632. • A proprietarycolony created in 1634. • A healthier locationthan Jamestown. • Tobacco would be the main crop. Why a “poor man’s crop?” • His plan was to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship. • Huge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives.
Colonization of Maryland St Mary’s City (1634)
A Haven for Catholics • Supposed to be a haven for Catholics but, the irony is ….? • Colonists were only willing to come to MD if they received LAND. • Colonists who did come received modest farms dispersed around the Chesapeake area. • Catholic land barons surrounded by mostly Protestant small farmers. • Conflict between barons and farmers led to Baltimore losing proprietary rights at the end of the 17c. • In the late 1600s, black slaves began to be imported.
A Haven for Catholics • Baltimore permitted high degree of freedom of worship in order to prevent repeat of persecution of Catholics by Protestants. • High number of Protestants threatened because of overwhelming rights given to Catholics. • Toleration Act of 1649 • Supported by the Catholics in MD. • Guaranteed toleration to ALL CHRISTIANS. • Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.]. • In one way, it was less tolerant than before the law was passed!!
Named after Charles II Held by 8 proprietors with wide authority Charleston established 1680 – busiest seaport in U.S. & only seaport in the South The Carolinas
Crops of the Carolinas Rice Indigo
Eventually splits in 1712 & both become royal colonies: NC – poorer region – independent! SC – prosperous - aristocratic North Carolina: Settled by poverty-stricken outcasts & religious dissenters from VA Strong spirit of resistance to authority Hospitable to pirates Democratic / Independent / NON-aristocratic “A vale of humility between 2 mountains of conceit.” The Carolinas
Strong ties with West Indies sugar islands – many settlers from there Adopted its slave code – Barbados Code RICE becomes major crop Set up strong slave trade Sell over 10,000 Indian slaves to sugar islands West African slaves become predominant labor source … WHY? Had experience with rice Immune to malaria Become majority of the population by 1710! South Carolina
Founded by James Oglethorpe & other London philanthropists, 1733 Took honest persons imprisoned for debts to resettle there English want buffer from SP Florida so charter granted Oglethorpe has idealistic regulations: No more than 50 acres land – non-transferable No rum – to ensure sobriety No slaves – to ensure hard work Founders disillusioned by 1752 – becomes royal colony Settlers began migration into “back-country” GeorgiaThe Last English Colony
Primary religious affiliation? Anglican church Highly illiterate – not much formal schooling – why? Slavery in all colonies Aristocratic atmosphere (except NC!); wealthy planters have the power Rigid social class structure: Wealthy planters Small Farmers (with slaves / without slaves) Landless whites Slaves Southern Society