WHAT IS CANCER? • Cancer is not a single disease but a group of over 100 different diseases chracterized by abnormal cell growth and replication. • Normally,cell sgrow and are replaced in an orderly manner. Enough new cells grow to replace the ones that are worn out and iniured. • Cancer cells lackcontrols to stop the growth process and continue to grow and multiply without restraint. • This loss of control of cell growth may be due to a variety of factors. Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, tobacco smoke, viral infections, diet, and chemicals in food and the environment all have been implicated.
Primary risk factors for cancer are: • Tobacco use • Sun overexposure • Diet • Inactivity • Obesity
Statistic : • 30% of Cancer patients are smokers, if you are a non smoker, then risk of cancer will be reduced by 30% • 15% of Cancer patients are due to hereditary, if your family line does not have any cancer history, then risk of cancer is further reduced by 15%. • Another 30% of Cancer patients are due to poor dietary habits. • So it depends on you, you can further reduce the risk of cancer by another 30% by having good dietary habit. One third of EU citizens are smokers
Tobacco Use • This includes cigarettes, pipes,cigarss, nuff,and chewing tobacco.Tobaccocontainsmany carcinogensthat increasethe risk of developingseveral types of cancers • Frequentexposureto toxins ingested from tobacco products weakens the immune system and decreaset she body's ability to cleanse it self of precancerous cells. • In addition, when a smoker is exposed to other carcinogenst, here seems to be a synergistic effect that multiplies cancer rates beyond what would be expected from the effect of each carcinogen alone. (smoking combined with the use of alcohol greatly increaset she risk of cancer).
Tobacco Use • lung cancer, varietyof oral cancers,including cancer of the lip, tongue, mouth, and throat. • Spit tobacco, also known as smokeless tobacco or chews nuffor dip, can cause cancer of the mouth and throat after as little as 3 years of use. • Changes in the oral mucosa are found as soon as 7 days after using spit tobacco. • The good news is that cancers caused by tobacco are 100 percent preventable
Sun Overexposure • Overexposure to the sun is the main cause of skin cancer.
Diet • About one-third of cancers can be prevented by a healthful diet. • Certain foods seem to be relate to an increase or decrease some kinds of cancers for instance, a high-fat diet seems to play a role in the development of breast, colon, and prostate cancers. • A multitude of studies show that by eating whole-grain foods, fruits, and vegetables and by avoiding high-fat red meat, bacon, and processed meats,we could significantly reduce our overall cancer risk
By making positive choices in your daily diet and following the guidelines listed here,you can promote good health now and reduce your cancer risk in the future. • Decrease fat intake, particukrfy from animal sources • Choose most of the foods you eat from plant sources • Eat craciferuos vegteables • Include foods rich in vitamins C and E,folic acid,and beta-caroteinney in your diet each day • Consume charcoal-grilled salted and nitrite-cured, smoked and pickled foods in moderation • Consurnе tree to four seraings of low-f at dairy products and other calcium-rich foods daily • Include soy foods in your diet • Include good fats in your diet
Inactivity • Experts speculate that exercise enhanceseverall health and well-being andstimulates the immune system, which may then scavenge abnormal cells more effectively. • Having a strong immune system is a key factor in preventing cancer because we are exposed to carcinogens every day. • Researchers also speculate that exercised ecreases the production of some reproductive hormones in both men and women, decreasing the risk of cancers that depend on these hormones to develop, such as breast and prostate cancers.
Obesity • Body size matters in cancer risk.Obese individuals,particularly those who are obese and sedentary increase their risk of all cancers. • Increased risk is due to a combination of factors,including sedentarylifestyle,greater caloric intake, greater fat intake, and body fat-mediated hormonal factors
Secondary risk factors for cancer home of which are controllable,include: • Excessive alcohol consumption • Exposure to home viral infections • Exposure to radiation,workplace hazards and certain chemicals
Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of several cancers. • Esophageal and liver cancers occur more frequently among heavy drinkers of alcohol, especially when the drinking is accompanied by smoking cigarettes or chewing tobacco. • Coupled with poor diet, alcohol increases the risk of developing colon cancer because it interferes with folic acid metabolism. • Studies have also shown an increased risk of breast cancer in women who regularly consume more than three alcoholic drinks per week.
Exposure to Some Viral Infections • Some viral infections can initiate cellular damage that leads to cancer. ( hepatitis B virus is linked to liver cancer,human papilloma virus (HPV) is linked to cervical cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is linked to Kaposi's sarcoma. • Risk of exposure to these infections can be reduced by behavioral changes. (condom used during sex)
Exposure to Radiation, Workplace Hazards, and Certain Chemicals • Avoid excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. • Ionizing radiation includes X rays, radon, and UV radiation. • While most medical X rayse mit low-dose radiation,it is still wise to use protective shields to cover body areas not being X rayed. • There is also a potential problem of radioactive radon gas in the home in certain areas of the country. • You can buy an inexpensive radon detector to test for radon,which increases the risk for lung cancer, especially in cigarettes mokers.
Breast Cancer • Breaste cancer is the most common cancer in women,but it is more curable than lung cancer and so it ranks as the second leading cancer killer • Having had breast cancer before. • Having a sister or mother who had breast cancer, especially if she had it before menopause. • Increased breast density. • A long menstrual history (starting menstruation before age 12 and/or experiencing menopause after age 50). This exposes the body to high estrogen levels longer. • Obesity, especially after menopause (fat cells produce estrogen). • Never having a child or having the first child after age 30. • Consumption of one or more alcoholic drinks a day • Mammograms are the most important tool for detecting breast cance and a woman should have one annually from the age of 40. • The breast self-exam which previously had been recommended once a month, is still useful for those at high risk-a personal history of cancer or a closer elative with breast cancer.
Colon ond Rectal Cancer • A genetic tendency to develop noncancerous polyps in the colon, combined with a diet high in animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables may cause half, perhapsallcolon cancers. • Risk factors for colon cancer include: • • Age. Over 90 percent of cases occur after age 50. • • Having a personal or family history of colon cancer, colon polyps, or inflammatory bowel disease. • • Smoking. • • Alcohol consumption. • • Obesity. • • A high-fat, low-fiber diet and low consumption of plant foods. • • Sedentary lifestyle. • Preventive behaviors include not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, eating five to eight servings or more of fruits and vegetableds aily, consuming little or no alcohol, and exercising 3 0 minutes or more most days of the week. In addition, researchin dicates that low-dose aspirin may have an anti-inflammatory effect.
Lung Cancer • Lung cancer is a rare diseas except amongs mokers. Exposure to sidestream cigarettes moke ecreases the risk for nonsmokers. • Lung tissue damage and cellular changes that precede lung cancer have been observed in 93 percent of active smokers but in only 6 percent of exsmokers and 1 percent of nonsmokers. • If a smoker quits, these early precancerous cellular changes are reversible, and the damaged bronchial lining often retums to normal. • If the smoker continues, the abnormal cell growth may progress to cancer.
Prostate Cancer • This is the most common cancer( excluding skin cancer) and the secondle ading cause of cancer deathsin men • Factors that increase risk of prostate cancer in clude: • • Age over 50 (risk increases with age) • • High-fat diet • • African American (incidence is far higher than for white men) • • Family history of prostate cancer
Skin Cancer • Skin cancer accounts for 40 percent of cancers. Sun overexposured uring childhood and the teen years accounts for over three-fourths of your lifetime exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation Risk Factors for Skin Cance
Testicular Cancer • It is the most common cancer in young men between the ages of 15 and 34 • Lives could be saved if more testicularcancers were detected and treatedearly. • Men discover most testicular cancers by leaming how to examinetheir testicles.In doing this once a month, you can greatly increase the chances of finding a testicular cancere arly if it does occur. All young men should learn and practice the monthly testicular self examination.