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GOODS, SERVICES, AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT. CHAPTER 1. DAVID A. COLLIER AND JAMES R. EVANS. LO1 Explain the concept and importance of operations management. LO2 Describe what operations managers do. LO3 Explain the differences between goods and services.

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slide1

GOODS, SERVICES, AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER 1

DAVID A. COLLIER AND JAMES R. EVANS

slide2

LO1 Explain the concept and importance of operations management.

LO2Describe what operations managers do.

LO3Explain the differences between goods and services.

LO4Describe a customer benefit package.

LO5Explain the role of processes in OM and identify three general types of processes.

LO6Summarize the historical development of OM.

LO7Describe current challenges facing OM.

slide3

“Walt Disney clearly put us on the path toward things like quality, great guest service, creativity and innovation.” Disney theme parks and resorts are designed to provide exceptional guest experiences and accomplish the mission to “create happiness by providing the finest in entertainment for people of all ages, everywhere.”

How do they accomplish this?

By meticulous attention to the management of operations!

slide4

Disney theme parks and resorts, for example, focus on:

  • training employees (“cast members”) to provide exceptional guest service;
  • the use of technology—both for entertainment and operational efficiency; on the physical setting (i.e., facility layout, lighting, signage, music, appealing to all five senses);
  • separating “onstage” public areas from “backstage” work operations that include a complex underground system to move materials and people around the properties;
  • process design issues like efficient waiting lines;
  • and continuous improvement of everything they do.
slide5

What do youthink?

Describe one experience you had at a theme park that illustrates either good or bad customer service or operational design. What can we learn from your experience regarding how a theme park can create a positive customer experience or improve on a bad one through its design and operations?

slide6

Operations management (OM) is the science and art of ensuring that goods and services are created and delivered successfully to customers.

    • Design of goods, services, and the processes that create them.
    • Day-to-day management of those processes.
    • Continual improvement of these goods, services, and processes.
slide8

What Do Operations Managers Do?

  • Forecasting
  • Supply chain management
  • Facility layout and design
  • Technology selection
  • Quality management
  • Purchasing
  • Resource and capacity management
  • Process design
  • Job design
  • Service encounter design
  • Scheduling
slide10

United Performance Metals: The Life of an Operations Manager

  • United Performance Metals (UPM), located in Hamilton, Ohio, is a supplier of stainless steel and high temperature alloys for the specialty metal market.
  • UPM’s primary production operations include slitting coil stock and cutting sheet steel to customer specifications with rapid turnaround times from order to delivery.
slide11

United Performance Metals: The Life of an Operations Manager

  • The Director of Operations and Quality is involved in a variety of daily activities that draw upon knowledge of not only OM and engineering, but also finance, accounting, organizational behavior, and other subjects.
  • While understanding specialty metals is certainly a vital part of the Director’s job, the ability to understand customer needs, apply approaches to continuous improvement, understand and motivate people, work cross-functionally across the business, and integrate processes and technology within the value chain define the job of an Operations Manager.
slide12

OM in the Workplace

  • Operations Managers have such titles as:
  • Chief Operating Officer
  • Hotel or Restaurant Manager
  • Vice President of Manufacturing
  • Customer Service Manager
  • Plant Manager
  • Field Services Manager
  • Supply Chain Manager
slide13

OM in the Workplace

Shelly Decker, an accounting and information systems major in college, and her sister created an entrepreneurial venture to manufacture and sell natural soaps and body products.

slide14

OM in the Workplace

  • Shelly uses OM skills every day:
  • Process design – When a new product is to be introduced, the best way to produce it must be determined.  This involves charting the detailed steps needed to make the product. 
  • Inventory management – Inventory is tightly controlled to keep cost down and to avoid production that isn't needed.  Inventory is taken every four weeks and adjusted in the inventory management system accordingly. 
slide15

OM in the Workplace

  • Scheduling – Production schedules are created to ensure that enough product is available for both retail and wholesale customers, taking into account such factors as current inventory and soap production capacity. 
  • Quality management – Each product is inspected and must conform to the highest quality standards. If a product does not conform to standard (for example, wrong color, improper packaging, improper labeling, improper weight, size, or shape), then it is removed from inventory to determine where the process broke down and to initiate corrective action.
slide16

OM in the Workplace

Brooke Wilson is a Process Manager for J.P. Morgan Chase in the Credit Card Division. He was an accounting major in college. Among his OM-related activities are:

  • Planning and budgeting: Representing the plastic card production area in all meetings, developing annual budgets and staffing plans, and watching technology that might affect the production of plastic credit cards.
  • Inventory management: Overseeing the management of inventory for items such as plastic blank cards, inserts such as advertisements, envelopes, postage, and credit card rules and disclosure inserts.
slide17

OM in the Workplace

    • Scheduling and capacity: Daily to annual scheduling of all resources (equipment, people, inventory) necessary to issue new credit cards and reissue cards that are up for renewal, replace old or damaged cards, and one's that are stolen.
    • Quality: Embossing the card with accurate customer information and quickly getting the card in the hands of the customer.
slide18

Understanding Goods and Services

  • A goodis a physical product that you can see, touch, or possibly consume. Examples of goods include: oranges, flowers, televisions, soap, airplanes, fish, furniture, coal, lumber, personal computers, paper, and industrial machines.
  • A durable goodis a product that typically lasts at least three years. Vehicles, dishwashers, and furniture are some examples of durable goods.
slide19

Understanding Goods and Services

  • A non-durable good is perishable and generally lasts for less than three years. Examples are toothpaste, software, shoes, and fruit.
  • A service is any primary or complementary activity that does not directly produce a physical product.
slide20

Similarities Between Goods and Services

  • Goods and services provide value and satisfaction to customers who purchase and use them.
  • They both can be standardized or customized to individual wants and needs.
  • A process creates and delivers each good or service, and therefore, OM is a critical skill.
slide21

Differences Between Goods and Services

  • Goods are tangible while services are intangible.
  • Customers participate in many service processes, activities, and transactions.
  • The demand for services is more difficult to predict than the demand for goods.
  • Services cannot be stored as physical inventory.
  • Service management skills are paramount to a successful service encounter.
  • Service facilities typically need to be in close proximity to the customer.
  • Patents do not protect services.
slide22

Understanding Goods and Services

  • Service management integrates marketing, human resources, and operations functions toplan, create, and deliver goods and services, and their associated service encounters.
  • Aservice encounter is an interaction between the customer and the service provider.
slide23

Understanding Goods and Services

  • Service encounters consist of one or moremoments of truth—any episodes, transactions, or experiences in which a customer comes into contact with any aspect of the delivery system, however remote, and thereby has an opportunity to form an impression.
  • Examples:
    • A gracious welcome by an employee at a hotel check-in counter
    • A grocery store employee who seems too impatient to help
    • Trying to navigate a confusing Web site
slide24

Exhibit 1.1

How Goods and Services Affect Operations Management Activities

slide25

Customer Benefit Packages

  • A customer benefit package (CBP) is a clearly defined set of tangible (goods-content) and intangible (service-content) features that the customer recognizes, pays for, uses, or experiences.
  • In simple terms, a CBP is some combination of goods and services configured in a certain way to provide value to customers.
  • A CBP consists of a primary good or service, coupled with peripheral goods and/or services.
slide26

Customer Benefit Packages

  • A primary good or service is the “core” offering that attracts customers and responds to their basic needs. For example, the primary service of a personal checking account is the capability to do convenient financial transactions.
  • Examples:
    • an airline flight
    • a checking account
    • a brief case
    • a football game
    • tax preparation advice
slide27

Customer Benefit Packages

  • Peripheral goods or services are those that are not essential to the primary good or service, but enhance it.
  • Examples for a personal checking account:
    • online access and bill payment
    • debit card
    • designer checks
    • paper or electronic account statement
slide28

Customer Benefit Packages

  • A variantis a CBP attribute that departs from the standard CBP and is normally location- or firm-specific.
  • Example:
    • a fishing pond or pool at an automobile dealership where kids can fish while the parents shop for vehicles
slide32

Customer Benefit Packages

  • Many “goods” and “services” have a mixture of both goods and service content.

Exhibit 1.3

Examples of Goods and Service Content

slide33

Biztainment – (Huh?)

Why would someone pay, for example, to crush grapes with their feet? Might it be that the process of doing this is as valuable to the customer as the outcome itself? Entertainment is the act of providing hospitality, escapism, fun, excitement, and/or relaxation to people as they go about their daily work and personal activities. The addition of entertainment to an organization’s customer benefit package provides unique opportunities for companies to increase customer satisfaction and grow revenue.

Biztainmentis the practice of adding entertainment content to a bundle of goods and services in order to gain a competitive advantage.

slide34

Biztainment – (Huh?)

The old business model of just selling and servicing a physical vehicle is gone. For example, a BMW automobile dealership in Fort Myers, Florida recently opened a new 52,000 square foot facility that offers a putting green, private work areas, a movie theater, wireless Internet access, massage chairs, a golf simulator, and a cafe´, so that customers have multiple entertainment options during their visits.

Build-A-Bear Workshop boasts an average of $600 per square foot in annual revenue, double the U.S. mall average, and Holiday Inns found that hotels with holidomes have a 20% higher occupancy rate and room rates are on average $28 higher.

slide35

Processes

  • A process is a sequence of activities that is intended to create a certain result.
  • Processes are the means by which goods and services—the components of a CBP—are produced and delivered.
slide36

Processes

  • Key business processes:
  • Value creationprocesses, focused on producing or delivering an organization’s primary goods or services, such as filling and shipping a customer’s order, assembling a dishwasher, or providing a home mortgage.
  • Support processes, such as purchasing materials and supplies used in manufacturing, managing inventory, installation, health benefits, technology acquisition, day care on-site services, and research and development.
  • General management processes,including accounting and information systems, human resource management, and marketing.
slide37

Processes

  • Nearly every major activity within an organization involves a process that crosses traditional organizational boundaries.
  • Networks of processes are called value chains, which we focus on in Chapter 2.
slide38

Pal’s Sudden Service

  • Pal’s Sudden Service is a small chain of mostly drive-through quick service restaurants located in Northeast Tennessee and Southwest Virginia.
  • Pal’s competes against major national chains and outperforms all of them by focusing on important customer requirements such as speed, accuracy, friendly service, correct ingredients and amounts, proper food temperature, and safety.
slide39

Pal’s Sudden Service

  • Pal’s uses extensive market research to fully understand customer requirements: convenience; ease of driving in and out; easy-to-read menu, simple, accurate order-system; fast service; wholesome food; and reasonable price.
slide40

Pal’s Sudden Service

  • Pal’s value chain begins with raw materials and suppliers providing items such as meat, lettuce, tomatoes, buns, and packaging; uses intermediate processes for order taking, cooking, and final assembly; and ends with order delivery and—hopefully—happy customers.
  • Every process is flowcharted and analyzed for opportunities for error, and then mistake-proofed if at all possible.
slide41

Pal’s Sudden Service

  • Entry-level employees—mostly high school students in their first job—receive 120 hours of training on precise work procedures and process standards in unique self-teaching, classroom, and on-the-job settings, reinforced by a “Caught Doing Good” program that provides recognition for meeting quality standards and high performance expectations.
  • Pal’s collects performance measures such as complaints, profitability, employee turnover, safety, and productivity.
slide43

Exhibit 1.5 U.S. Employment by Major Industry

* Durable goods are items such as instruments, vehicles, aircraft, computer and office equipment, machinery, furniture, glass, metals, and appliances.

** Nondurable goods are items such as textiles, apparel, paper, food, coal, oil, leather, plastics, chemicals, and books.

Source: United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, October 2001, http://www.bls.gov/EMP

slide44

Exhibit 1.5

U.S. Employment by Major Industry (continued)

slide45

Today, more than 90 percent of the jobs in the U.S. economy are in service processes (half of the jobs in goods-producing industries, or about 9%, plus 81% in service industries). Service involves designing and managing service-, information-, or entertainment-intensive processes.

Most people in the United States are working in the service sector or service processes such as health care and education, or in service-related aspects of manufacturing firms such as human resource management and accounting.

slide46

Sustainability

Sustainabilityrefers to an organization’s ability to strategically address current business needs and successfully develop a long-term strategy that embraces opportunities and manages risk for all products, systems, supply chains, and processes to preserve resources for future generations.

slide47

Sustainability

  • Environmental sustainabilityis an organization’s commitment to the long-term quality of our environment.
  • Social sustainabilityis an organization’s commitment to maintain healthy communities and society that improve the quality of life.
  • Economic sustainabilityis an organization’s commitment to address current business needs and economic vitality, and to have the agility and strategic management to prepare successfully for future business, markets, and operating environments.
slide48

Exhibit 1.6

Examples of Sustainability Practices

slide49

Current Challenges in OM

  • Technology
  • Globalization
  • Changing customer expectations
  • Changing job designs
  • Quality
  • Global manufacturing
slide50

Zappos Case Study

  • Draw and describe the customer benefit package that Zappos provides. Identify and describe one primary value creation, one support, and one general management process you might encounter at Zappos.
  • Explain the role of service encounters and service management skills at Zappos. How does Zappos create superior customer experiences?
  • Describe how any three of the OM activities in the box “What Do Operations Managers Do?” impact the management of both the goods that Zappos sells and the services that it provides.