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Fossil Fuels: Oil and Natural Gas. Oil is the most widely used energy source and represents the largest industry on Earth. 19_16.JPG. Global Oil Demand & Supply. Worlds major producers of oil are not major consumers Oil must be imported into countries like U.S. and Europe

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Presentation Transcript
global oil demand supply
Global Oil Demand & Supply
  • Worlds major producers of oil are not major consumers
    • Oil must be imported into countries like U.S. and Europe
    • Creates economic burden on these countries
oil formation
Oil Formation
  • Oil was formed by ancient microorganisms who died and were buried by sedimentary rock
  • Heat and pressure turned the dead organisms into oil
  • Oil is made of many hydrocarbon compounds
oil and natural gas
Oil And Natural Gas
  • 1940’s oil and natural gas became most important energy sources
  • easier to transport
  • cleaner burning
  • 1993 63% of U.S. energy needs are met by these
oil and natural gas1
Oil and Natural Gas
  • Both are hydrocarbons
  • Usually oil and natural gas deposits are found together
exploration for oil nat gas
Exploration for Oil & Nat. Gas
  • Oil deposits are detected by structural traps
    • Geological features that trap oil and natural gas

ANTICLINE: upward folding of rock

SALT DOMES: underground columns of salt deposits

crude oil recovery
Crude Oil Recovery
  • Primary Oil Recovery
    • Drill well
    • Pumping out oil that flows by gravity into well
north sea off shore oil platforms
North Sea Off-shore Oil Platforms
  • Extremely dangerous to work on
how is crude oil refined
How Is Crude Oil Refined?
  • From heaviest to lightest:
  • Asphalt, wax, naphtha, diesel oil, heating oil, jet fuel, gasoline, cooking gases (propane, butane)
how is crude oil refined1
How Is Crude Oil Refined?

Crude oil

  • mixture of many different hydro-carbons that can be separated with distillation
distillation process
Distillation process
  • Animation of distillation process
Everyday the World uses 86 million barrels of oil; the United States uses 21 million barrels of oil or about 24% of the total.

Originally there were about 2.2 trillion barrels of oil in the ground: it took about 150 years to use the first 1.1 trillion barrels, but will take less than 50 years to use the second 1.1 trillion

natural gas formation
Natural Gas Formation
  • Similar to oil formation
    • Buried organisms pressurized & heated to a much higher temp
    • Natural Gas is mainly composed of methane
natural gas overview
Natural Gas: Overview
  • Third most important fuel
    • 24% of world’s consumption
  • Mixture of 50-90% methane and bits of ethane, propane, butane and H2S
properties of natural gas
Properties of Natural Gas
  • Formed at higher temps than oil
    • contains almost NO sulfur
    • most electrical power plants in California use natural gas because it pollutes less than oil
    • produces less carbon dioxide than oil

A Big Difference Between Oil and Natural Gas: Natural Gas is often used to generate electricity because it is the cleanest burning fossil fuel while oil is rarely burned to produce electricity

the great shale gas rush
The Great Shale Gas Rush
  • Marcellus shale
  • Interactive diagram of fracking
environmental problems
Environmental Problems
  • Air pollution (combustion)
    • increased CO2 levels
    • acid deposition
  • Oil spills (transportation)
  • Habitat Destruction
  • Aquifer contamination