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  1. Food Chemistrymajor part of thediscipline of studyFood Science

  2. To assure the quality of foods and develop new food products the Food Scientist must understand Food Chemistryand the primary compounds in foods which are carbohydrates, lipidsand proteins

  3. CARBOHYDRATES • Sugars • Starches • Dietary fiber • Cellulose • Gums • Pectin

  4. CARBOHYDRATES • Sugars • Monosaccharides • Glucose • Fructose • Galactose • Disaccharides • Sucrose - - - - Table sugar • Glucose and Fructose • Lactose - - - - Milk sugar • Glucose and Galactose • Maltose - - - - Corn sugar • Glucose and Glucose

  5. CARBOHYDRATES • Sugars • Sweetness • Fructose 1.3 • Sucrose 1.0 • Glucose 0.56 • Galactose 0.4-0.6 • Maltose 0.3-0.5 • Lactose 0.2-0.3

  6. CHO - Sweetness • Carbonated beverage • High fructose • corn syrup • Sucrose • Lactaid • Lactose or • Galactose and glucose

  7. CHO - Solubility • Candy • Invert sugar • Caramel • Hard candy • Ice Cream • Lactose • Sucrose • HFCS

  8. CHO – Corn Syrup • Contains both • Corn syrup and • HFCS • acid pH • Changes • Flavor • Solubility

  9. CHO - Starch • Amylose • straight chain of glucose • Amylopectin • branched chains of glucose

  10. CHO - Hydrocolloids • Hydrocolloids include gums and pectin • Trap water and form gels or make products viscous • Used at low concentrations

  11. CHO - Bread • Starch in bread helps produce the texture • Sugars form brown crust • Fiber in whole grains

  12. LIPIDS or FAT • Glycerol (3 carbon) alcohol • Fatty acids attach to alcohol with ester bonds Triglyceride Diglyceride Monoglyceride

  13. Fat • Water insoluble (Non-polar) • Smaller molecules • Mix between CHO and/or Proteins • Produce creamy or soft texture

  14. Fat – Fatty acids • Chains of Carbon atoms with Hydrogens attached • If every C has 2 H attached the fatty acid is saturated H H H H H H H H H C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C - OH H H H H H H H H

  15. Fat – Fatty acids • If two C have a double bond so only 1 H attached the fatty acid is monounsaturated H H H H H H H C – C – C – C = C – C – C – C – OH H H H H H H H H

  16. Fat – Fatty acids • If there are more than one double bond the fatty acid is polyunsaturated H H H H H H H H H C – C – C – C = C – C – C = C – C – C – C – C – OH H H H H H H H H H H H H

  17. FAT - Oxidation • Double bond is less stable and Oxygen molecules can attach to unsaturated fatty acids

  18. FAT - Oxidation • Prevent or slow oxidation by • Hydrogenating unsaturated fatty acids (add hydrogens to double bonds) • Vacuum package foods • Packages that block or absorb light • Keep products cool • Add antioxidants

  19. FAT – Melting point • The type of fatty acids will affect the melting point of the fat

  20. REDUCED FAT – Ice Cream • Remove some or all fat in food products • Add other ingredients to give acceptable texture • Gums are added to this ice cream

  21. PROTEIN • Made of varying amino acids • Amino acids contain Nitrogen

  22. PROTEIN – Bakery Items • The amount of protein will affect the texture of bakery products • Protein is tougher than starch • Flour to make pasta has highest amount of protein • Flour to produce bagels in higher than flour used to produce bread

  23. PROTEIN - Denaturation • Peptide bonds can be broken apart if the temperature is higher • Peptide bonds can also be broken apart by acid

  24. PROTEIN - Denaturation • Diet beverages contain aspartame • Aspartame is two amino acids • The shelf-life is therefore shorter than for sugar sweetened drinks

  25. PROTEIN - Cheese • Proteins are charged molecules • If the charge is neutral the protein will precipitate or coagulate • The isoelectric point for Casein (milk protein) is approximately 4.5. • At this pH curd forms and is used to make cheese

  26. PROTEIN - SALT • Some proteins are salt soluble • Increased salt content extracts proteins from meats and these proteins can act like a “glue”

  27. MOISTURE - Popcorn • Water content is an important factor in many foods • Amount and size of pop corn depends on proper moisture content

  28. COLOR - PIGMENTS • Different foods contain various pigments • Broccoli • chlorophyll • Red Cabbage • anthocyanins • Carrots • Beta carotene

  29. Vitamins • Fat soluble • Vitamins A, D, E, K • Water soluble • Vitamin C • B vitamins

  30. Minerals • Calcium • Iron • Sodium • Trace minerals