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Seeker/Sensor Technology Assessment for ECAP. Presented by Tim Carroll. Seeker/Sensor Technology Assessmsnt Huntsville, Alabama January 16, 2004. Tim Carroll AMCOM tjcarroll@knology.net. Seeker/Sensor Technology Assessment. Outline Definitions Background Information Seeker Types

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Seeker/Sensor Technology Assessment for ECAP


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seeker sensor technology assessment for ecap
Seeker/Sensor Technology Assessmentfor ECAP

Presented by Tim Carroll

Session 2 - Carroll

seeker sensor technology assessmsnt huntsville alabama january 16 2004

Seeker/Sensor Technology AssessmsntHuntsville, Alabama January 16, 2004

Tim Carroll

AMCOM

tjcarroll@knology.net

Session 2 - Carroll

seeker sensor technology assessment
Seeker/Sensor Technology Assessment

Outline

  • Definitions
  • Background Information
  • Seeker Types
  • Radar Seekers
  • Electro-Optical Seekers
  • Laser Seekers

Session 2 - Carroll

definition of a seeker
Definition of a Seeker
  • Definition - The seeker is the eye of a missile. Its job is to acquire and track the target until the missile impacts the target. The seeker provides bore-sight error signals (position of the target relative to the center axis of the missile) to the guidance algorithms. This energy is usually electromagnetic (EM) but can be other forms of energy as well (i.e., acoustic).
  • Seeker Block Diagram

Target

To

Guidance

Computer

Electrical Processor

Gimbal

Platform

Receiver/Detector

Aperture

(Antenna or Optics)

Transmitter

Session 2 - Carroll

seeker field of view and field of regard
Seeker Field-of-View and Field-of-Regard
  • Field-of-View – The angular area in space at which the seeker can observe at any given time (the FoV for radar seekers if referred to as ‘Beam Width’).
  • Field-of-Regard – The total angular area that a seeker can view by slewing the seeker aperture up and down and left to right on gimbals. Some missile seekers have no slewing mechanism and are called strap-down seekers (then the FoV and FoR are the equal).

Session 2 - Carroll

seeker sensor discipline interaction
Seeker/Sensor Discipline Interaction

Operational Engagement Requirements

Engagement Time Lines

Coverage Area

Aerodynamics

Nose Shape

Guidance Scheme

Seeker Type (Active or Passive)

System Simulation

FoV

Detection Range

Size Constraints

Diameter

Length

Seeker/Sensor

Design

Mechanical Design

and Layout

Size

Weight

Target Type

Wavelength

Power Requirements

Cost Constraints

Strap-Down vs. Gimballed

Multi-Mode

Electrical System

Power Requirements

Voltage

Current

Logistics Considerations

Packaging and Handling

Session 2 - Carroll

electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic Waves
  • An electromagnetic disturbance that is composed of time-varying electric and magnetic fields and can transport energy through space, even if no matter is present in that space, is called an electromagnetic wave (abbreviated EM).
  • EM waves propagate at the speed of light.
  • The electric and magnetic waves in an EM wave are oriented at 90 degrees to each other and to the direction of propagation.
  • EM waves travel in straight lines.
  • Objects in temperature above absolute zero emit EM waves in the Infrared (IR) spectrum.

Direction of Propagation

Session 2 - Carroll

em wavelengths and frequencies
EM Wavelengths and Frequencies
  • EM frequencies and wavelengths are related by the following expression:

where l = wavelength, c = speed of light (3x108 meters/sec),

and f = frequency of oscillation.

Session 2 - Carroll

em atmospheric attenuation
EM Atmospheric Attenuation

Session 2 - Carroll

classification of seekers sensors spectral band
Classification of Seekers/SensorsSpectral Band
  • Seekers are catagorized by which spectral band of EM radiation they operate within
    • Microwave
    • MMW
    • E-O (Visual and IR)
    • Laser (CO2 – 10.6mm, YAG – 1.06mm, GaAs – 0.9mm)

Session 2 - Carroll

classification of seekers sensors active passive semi active
Classification of Seekers/SensorsActive/Passive/Semi-Active
  • Active seekers transmit energy and the receive the reflected energy. Examples are Microwave Radars, Millimeter Wave Radars, and Laser Radars (LADAR).
  • Passive seekers look for natural occurring EM radiation (Infrared) or reflected EM radiation (Visual).
  • Semi-Active Seekers operate in one of two modes:
    • Other asset illuminates target while missile seeker operates in a passive mode to detect reflect EM radiation.
    • Missile is guided to target by other asset and then the missile seeker becomes active near the target. This is also called “Terminal Active”

Session 2 - Carroll

classification of seekers sensors stabilization mechanization
Classification of Seekers/SensorsStabilization Mechanization
  • Stabilized Seeker Head
    • Seeker Head is isolated from the missile body motion through gimbals, servo motors, and rate sensors. A clear stabilized image/signal is presented to the seeker detectors.
    • Increase cost,complexity, size and weight
  • Strap-Down Seeker
    • Seeker is rigidly attached to the missile body and observes the same motion as the missile
    • Cheaper, lower quality image/signal, smaller Field of Regard
    • Limited engagement geometries

Session 2 - Carroll

microwave radar seekers sensors
Microwave Radar Seekers/Sensors

Advantages

  • All Weather
  • Range and Range Rate Information
  • Long Operating Ranges
  • Low degradation due to battlefield obsurants
  • Doppler detection for moving targets
  • Low drag nose shapes

Disadvantages

  • Large Components
  • Large Aperature
  • Active Mode
  • Large Angular Resolution
  • High Cost

State of the Art

  • Phased Array Radars
  • Doppler Beam Sharpening
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar
  • Radiometric
  • Multisensor/Sensor Fusion

Microwave Radars are best suited for large missiles or ground based systems

Session 2 - Carroll

millimeter wave seekers sensors
Millimeter Wave Seekers/Sensors

Advantages

  • All Weather with some degradation
  • Range and Range Rate Information
  • Small Components
  • Small Angular Resolution
  • Doppler detection for moving targets
  • Low drag nose shapes

Disadvantages

  • Active Mode
  • High Cost
  • Relatively Short Operating Ranges

State of the Art

  • Small Components
  • Doppler Beam Sharpening
  • Strapdown Configurations
  • Radiometric
  • Multisensor/Sensor Fusion

MMW Wave Radars are suited well for small missiles and short detection ranges

Session 2 - Carroll

ir seekers sensors
IR Seekers/Sensors

Advantages

  • Small Components
  • Small Aperture
  • Very Small Angular Resolution
  • Passive Mode
  • Small Miss Distances
  • Aim-point Bias Capability

Disadvantages

  • Weather Degradation - Moderate
  • Battlefield Obscurant Degradation - Moderate
  • No Range or Range Rate Information
  • High Cost
  • High Drag Nose Shapes Required

State of the Art

  • Focal Plane Array
  • Uncooled IR Sensors
  • Strapdown Configurations
  • Multisensor/Sensor Fusion

IR Seekers are suited well for small missiles and short detection ranges that require precise hit locations

Session 2 - Carroll

visual seekers sensors
Visual Seekers/Sensors

Advantages

  • Small Components
  • Small Aperture
  • Very Small Angular Resolution
  • Passive Mode
  • Small Miss Distances
  • Aim-point Bias Capability

Disadvantages

  • Weather Degradation - High
  • Battlefield Obscurant Degradation - High
  • No Range or Range Rate Information
  • High Cost
  • High Drag Nose Shapes Required
  • Cannot Operate at Night

State of the Art

  • Strapdown Configurations
  • Multisensor/Sensor Fusion

Visual Seekers are not in use much anymore due to the lack of night vision and lack of capability in obscured environments

Session 2 - Carroll

laser seekers sensors
Laser Seekers/Sensors

Advantages

  • Small Components
  • Small Aperture
  • Range and Range Rate Information
  • Small Miss Distances
  • Aim-point Bias Capability

Disadvantages

  • Weather Degradation - High
  • Battlefield Obscurant Degradation - High
  • Dependency on Designator (Semi-Active)
  • High Cost
  • No Fire-and-Forget Capability
  • Small Search Areas

State of the Art

  • LADAR
  • Side-Looking Beamriders
  • Multisensor/Sensor Fusion

Laser Seekers are used in semi-active missiles where designating assets are available

Session 2 - Carroll

sample calculations
Sample Calculations

Snapshot from MS Excel utility used in

Seeker/Sensor Design.

Session 2 - Carroll