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Rice H usks B efore A nd A fter S team E xplosion (SE). Rha: rhamnose; Ara: arabinose; Xyl: xylose; Man: mannose; Glc: glucose; Gal: galactose (as anhydro sugars). Lignin (AcBr: lignin determined by acetyl bromide method. * - Extracted with water and dioxan (90%).

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rice h usks b efore a nd a fter s team e xplosion se
Rice Husks Before And After Steam Explosion (SE)

Rha: rhamnose; Ara: arabinose; Xyl: xylose; Man: mannose; Glc: glucose; Gal: galactose (as anhydro sugars)

Lignin (AcBr: lignin determined by acetyl bromide method

* - Extracted with water and dioxan (90%)

slide5

High Tech Materials From Rice Husk

  • Si (?)
  • nano-ceramics
  • alaoxy silicons
  • exceptionally selective and voracious nano-sorbents
  • carbon ceramics
slide6

CO → CO2

OXIDES

RICE HUSKS

(SiO2)

T

Si

O2

SiO2 + 2C → Si + 2CO

slide7

LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMA

RICE HUSKS

PRODUCTS:

nano-powders (20-100 nm)

β – SiC

α -, β – Si3N4, X-ray amorphous

nano-ceramics

PLASMATRON

slide15

Precursors

SSA, m2/g

N, wt.%

C/Si

XRD

Rice husk

42

3.9

0.56

-SiC

Rice husk+SiO2

21.8

3.1

0.37

-SiC

Rice husk+Si

20.7

4.5

0.38

-SiC

Characteristics of produced products

slide17

Experimental

The nanosize nitride or oxide based composites are prepared by evaporation of coarse commercially available powders of chemical elements and their compounds and subsequent condensation of products into a radio frequency inductively coupled nitrogen or oxygen plasma (ICP). The elaborated experimental apparatus (Fig. 1) consists of radio-frequency (5.28 MHz) oscillator with maximum power of 100 kW, quartz discharge tube with induction coil, raw powder and gas supply systems, water cooled stainless steel reactor and heat exchanger, and cloth filter for collecting powders. Optimal parameters of the radio-frequency oscillator and parameters of the plasma are determined by calorimetric methods. The growth of product particles and their phase and chemical composition are regulated by changing the velocity of the plasma flow and introducing cold gas (ammonia, hydrocarbon, hydrogen, air) into vapours. The process is optimised by studying the dependence of the particle size, their phase and chemical composition, and the production rate on the flow rate of plasma and cooling gases, the feeding rate of precursor powders, parameters of the plasma flow.

The chemical and phase composition of prepared powders is determined by conventional chemical and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The specific surface area of powders is determined by the BET argon adsorption-desorption method but the shape of particles by transmission electronic microscopy

slide18

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to my colleagues: Oskars Bikovens,

Andris Vēveris and the one of leading experts of low

temperature plasma physics and tehnology

Academician of the ALS Jānis Grabis. The research was

done

withouth any financial support