Fragments, Comma Splices, and Run-On sentences. What are they? How can they be avoided?. Definitions. What is a fragment? A fragment is an incomplete sentence. It does not encompass a complete thought. What is a run-on?
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Fragments, Comma Splices, and Run-On sentences What are they? How can they be avoided?
Definitions • What is a fragment? A fragment is an incomplete sentence. It does not encompass a complete thought. • What is a run-on? A run-on is two sentences written as one with no punctuation between the two sentences. • What is a comma splice? A comma splice is two sentences written with a comma separating the two sentences.
Fragments- Examples • Although we were. (This sentence is a prepositional phrase; therefore, it is a dependent clause.) • And he said. (This sentence is not a complete thought. The reader is left hanging. He said “What?”)
Fragments- Examples • When writing, you want the reader to understand your main point. Choppy sentences confuse the reader. Phrases beginning with subordinating conjunctions are considered fragments. Below is a list of commonly used subordinating conjunctions. • after although as asif • as soon as asthough because before • even though how however if • that though provided that since • so that unless until what • when whenever where wherever • which while who whoever • why
Fixing Fragments • Solution 1: Join the dependent clause fragment with an independent clause. • Example: When I was walking. There was a big dog in the street. • Solution: When I was walking, there was a big dog in the street. • Example: Once upon a time. The boss was very mean. • Solution: Once upon a time, the boss was very mean.
Fixing Fragments • Solution 2: Omit the subordinating conjunction. • Example: If I was in the mall. I wanted to shop at the Discovery Store. • Solution: I was in the mall. I wanted to shop at the Discovery Store. • Example: When I was going to school. I tripped on a small dog. • Solution: I was going to school. I tripped on a small dog.
Run-On- Examples • The boy was walking to the store it is where he was buying milk for his mother. • (There are too many thoughts in this sentence. One thought relates to the boy walking to the store. The other thought relates to him buying milk. It would be easier for the reader if the thoughts were divided into two complete sentences.)
Run-On- Examples • They said we should sing, dance, and then we decided to go to the mall. • (Again, the sentence relates to the group singing, dancing. Suddenly, the thought changes to the group deciding to go to the mall. There are too many thoughts in one sentence.)
Run- On- How to Fix • Run-on sentences confuse the reader because they contain too much information. • Solution 1: Place a period after each independent clause and capitalize the first letter in each clause.
Run-On- How to Fix • Example: The Officer was driving he saw a black dog running across the street the kids were playing in the field where the gardener was raking the lawn. • There are too many thoughts in one sentence. (Officer driving, black dog running, kids playing, gardener raking) Solution: The Officer was driving. He saw a black dog running across the street. The kids were playing in the field where the gardener was raking the lawn.
Run-On- How to Fix • Example: The woman was walking the man stood up and walked to the printer it was not working. • Solution: The woman was walking. The man stood up and walked to the printer. It was not working.
Comma Splice- Examples • The woman was sitting at the computer, the computer was not working. • (In this sentence, the author tries to incorporate two complete thoughts in one sentence using a comma.) • I was in the classroom, the room had twenty computers which were not functioning. • (Again, in this sentence, there are two complete thoughts separated by a comma.)
Comma Splice-How to Fix • Since the only difference between a comma splice and a run-on is the usage of commas, the solutions are the same. • In this case, you would replace the comma with a period. • Example: He was running across the street, the dog was running, barking, and wagging his tail. • Solution: He was running across the street. The dog was running, barking, and wagging his tail.
Comma Splice- How to Fix • Example: The students were at the event, the event was at South Campus, it was held in room A-200, the artist was John Doe. • Solution: The students were at the event. The event was at South Campus. It was held in room A-200. The artist was John Doe.