Ancient Rome. Lesson 1 Vocabulary. Sicily peninsula land Alps Apennines basin – Po basin. 1. Italian Peninsula. Boot shaped Europe Sicily : near by island Close to Africa and Greece Italy is midpoint of the Mediterranean Sea Mountainous, not as bad as Greece
The Po Basin
The Western Coastal Plain
The twin brothers Romulus and Remus were the sons of the god Mars. When they were very young they were abandoned by the banks of the Tiber River and left to fend for themselves. Luckily for them, they were found by a she-wolf who took pity on them and fed them with her milk.
Later, a shepherd found the boys and took them home to look after them. He ended up raising the boys as his own children. The boys grew up to be very strong and clever. They decided to build a town on the spot where the shepherd had found them.
Shortly after building the town, the twins had a big argument about who should be in charge. Romulus overpowered his brother Remus, who died in the fight. Romulus then became the first king of this town which he named Rome, after himself.
As you can see, the early days of the city of Rome are surrounded with mystery. Much of what historians believe is based upon circumstance, as there is little evidence remaining of what Rome was like two and a half thousand years ago. What we do have, is a Legend, a story that is partly based on fact, partly based on fiction.
Who were the 3 Early Settlers on the Italian peninsula?DO NOW: ON THE COVERrephrase each question into a statement
north coast of
Rome was growing, It was starting to expand beyond the southern Italian peninsula. At the same time as Rome was growing, so was the city-state of Carthage. Carthage was in North Africa and had sent out its ships and soldiers to many parts of the Mediterranean. Carthage had conquered three islands off the coast of modern day Italy, and Rome felt that these islands should belong to Rome. The two governments could not reach any agreement, so these two powers went to war. Carthage had a great navy. The Romans had a great army. This war was going to be bad.
The wars between Rome and Carthage are called the Punic Wars. The First Punic war lasted for 20 years. Neither side won. Carthage could not beat Rome's army, but Rome could not beat Carthage's Navy. The war causes many deaths and lots of destruction. The First Punic war ended when Carthage decided to end the fighting by giving Rome one of the three islands.
The Romans still wanted the other two islands, and Carthage wanted Rome to stop expanding towards Africa, so everyone knew that there would soon be a second war.
There soon would be.
At the end of the First Punic war, Carthage's decided to expand into Iberia (Spain). They sent their best army with their best general Hamilcar. Hamilcar took along his oldest son Hannibal to help him. Carthage was doing really well in Iberia when Hamilcar got sick and died. The Carthaginians wondered what to do. The army had no such worries. By popular acclaim, they made Hannibal their General.
Hannibal: Hannibal was a great general. He was very , very tricky. He won battles by using new and different ideas. As an example, once while fighting at sea, he had his men throw live snakes on to the enemies ship. The snakes frightened the enemy so badly they surrendered.
Carthage wanted to conquer all of Iberia and Hannibal set about doing just that. Unfortunately, some of the cities in Iberia were allies of Rome. When Hannibal attacked one of these cities, Rome saw the excuse they needed, so they declared war on Carthage. But they did not go after Hannibal in Iberia. They sent their main army to attack Carthage. Hannibal knew he had to do something to prevent the Romans from conquering Carthage, but what? He was in Iberia with his army. Rome was safe on the other side of the Alps, which were a very tall and steep set of mountains. Hannibal didn't let that stop him. In a feat for which he is remembered still, Hannibal decided to invade the Italian peninsula by going over the Alps. He decided to bring his war elephants with him. No one of the time believed that it was possible, and it almost wasn't. Hannibal lost most of his elephants to the cold of the mountains, and he lost half of his men as well. But he did cross the Alps and brought the rest of his army into the Italian peninsula to attack Rome.
Because of his losses as he crossed the Alps, Hannibal's army was not strong enough to attack the city of Rome. So Hannibal attacked other cities and towns throughout the Italian peninsula. Hannibal and his army spent 15 years on the Italian peninsula fighting against the Roman legions. Rome was worried and afraid. They had to keep a large army near Rome to protect against Hannibal so they could never get enough troops out to catch him. Rome settled on a new strategy. Once again, they sent their army to attack Carthage itself.
The leaders of Carthage panicked and called Hannibal and his army home. Before Hannibal could return, the Roman army had Carthage surrounded. The leaders of Carthage surrendered. Carthage agreed to limit the size of its army and navy, to pay tribute to Rome, and to leave Spain and Italy. When Hannibal got back, Carthage reneged on the deal. Rome sent back its army and finally defeated Hannibal's forces. They did not manage to catch Hannibal himself, but they made Carthage shrink its army and navy even more, and pay even more tribute.
The war was over. But the Romans were still after Hannibal. Hannibal led his troops back to Spain and continued fighting against Rome.
Third Punic War. While Rome was busy at other tasks and in other parts of the world, the city of Carthage was growing strong again. Soon Carthage felt strong enough to fight Rome. The third Punic war started. The Romans and Carthage fought for several years but Rome was too strong. The Romans defeated Carthage again. But this time Rome had had enough. They rounded up all the people of Carthage and sold them into slavery. They tore down every building in the city, then spread salt over all the farms and fields around where Carthage had been. Thus the land was no good for growing food. There was no longer a city of Carthage.
The Roman Empire
The conspirators [men who meet to plan an evil crime] never met exactly openly, but they assembled a few at a time in each other's homes. There were many discussions and proposals, as might be expected, while they investigated how and where to execute their design to kill Caesar.
In the days leading up to the assassination, Caesar was told by doctors, friends, and even his wife, Calpurnia, not to attend the Senate on the Ides of March for various reasons, including medical concerns and troubling dreams Calpurnia had.
The majority opinion, however, favored killing him while he sat in the Senate. He would be there by himself, since only Senators were admitted.
Conspirators could hide their daggers beneath their togas.
This plan won the day.
...his friends were alarmed at certain rumors and tried to stop him from going to the Senate-house, as did his doctors, for he was suffering from one of his occasional dizzy spells. His wife, Calpurnia, especially, who was frightened by some visions in her dreams, clung to him and said that she would not let him go out that day. But Brutus, one of the conspirators and BEST friend, came up and said,
“What is this, Caesar? Are you a man to pay attention to a woman's dreams and the idle gossip of stupid men, and to insult the Senate by not going out, although it has honored you and has been specially summoned by you? But listen to me; cast aside the strong feelings of all these people, and come. The Senate has been in session waiting for you since early this morning.”
This convinced Caesar and he left.
Reigned (31 BCE – 14 CE) had to fight for his throne. His long rule saw a huge expansion in the Roman Empire and the beginnings of a dynasty that, over the next century, would transform Rome, for better and worse. The man who would become one of Rome’s greatest leaders had an unpromising start in life. Augustus was a sickly child in a family with few connections. His father died when Augustus was four. His future looked bleak: Rome was dangerous and engulfed by civil war. However, Rome was led by his great-uncle, Julius Caesar.
A bit of luck Then Augustus got a lucky break. In 46 BCE, Caesar won the civil war and was named dictator of Rome. To secure his position, he needed an heir. With no son of his own, he adopted Augustus. This was a fantastic opportunity for a young man from nowhere. Almost at once, however, Caesar was dead – murdered by his own advisors. Augustus was just 19, but immediately threw himself into the backstabbing world of Roman politics .
Claiming the throne He formed a strategic alliance with Marc Antony, a successful and ambitious general. Over the next few years, they defeated their enemies in Rome and chased the survivors to Greece, where they finished them off in two of the bloodiest battles in Roman history. The killing over, the empire was theirs and they divided the spoils. Augustus kept Rome, while Antony took Egypt. There he fell under the spell of Cleopatra, Egypt’s beautiful queen.
Trouble in Egypt Romans feared that Cleopatra wanted the throne for herself and his relationship with her made Mark Antony a hated man in Rome. His alliance with Augustus disintegrated but, before Antony and Cleopatra could strike Rome, Augustus attacked. The Battle of Actium in 31 BCE destroyed three-quarters of the Egyptian fleet. Cleopatra and Marc Antony killed themselves and, finally, the Roman Empire now included the land of the pharaohs.
Local heroBack home, Augustus was a hero. At the age of 32, he had become Rome’s first Emperor, promising to restore peace and security.Winning the war had been difficult, but was nothing compared to the challenge of winning the peace. Many immediately suspected him of wanting to create a dynasty to rule Rome for generations to come.
A charm offensiveTo avoid Julius Caesar’s fate, Augustus charmed the Senate and the people by pretending to give up power. But a series of disasters panicked Romans. They became convinced that only he could save them and begged the Senate to vote him absolute ruler. Augustus agreed, but did so cleverly. He convinced Romans that he was ruling in the best traditions of the republic, but actually was an absolute ruler creating a dynasty. The Romans bought it.
Growing olderDuring his reign, Augustus achieved a lot. He expanded the empire, adding Egypt, northern Spain and large parts of central Europe before invading Germany.
But problems remained. Augustus was growing older and weaker. Despite his successes, the plotting continued. Everything that Augustus had worked so hard to achieve was in danger of collapsing as he faced crisis after crisis, both at home and abroad. Nevertheless, Augustus clung onto power for another 10 years. When he died, in 14 CE, the Senate declared him a god. With his two grandsons already dead, power passed to his stepson, Tiberius.
So what did he do? Augustus had ended 100 years of civil war and achieved over 40 years of internal peace and prosperity. His vision and power had expanded the Roman Empire to become far more than a collection of countries. Instead, it was a diverse society and enormous marketplace in which people across Europe, north Africa and the Middle East could trade and travel under Rome’s protection. He had won over the Senate and founded a dynasty. But this would feature as many villains as heroes, and would take Rome on a roller-coaster ride into assassination, insanity and terror.
“I found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble.”
The Legacies of Ancient Rome
Outside Il Colosseo
-there is a melody to HOW the words are pronounced.
Birth of Christianity
One day in year 312 C.E., the emperor Constantine stood with his troops under the cloudy sky near a bridge across the Tiber River. He was filled with doubts. A battle was about to begin. His enemies were waiting on the other side of the river. While Constantine was hoping for victory, the sun broke through the clouds. The sun had a cross on it. Above the cross was written in Latin: “Under this sign you will conquer.” The next morning, Constantine had artisans put the Christian symbol on his soldiers’ shields. In the battle, they won an overwhelming victory. Constantine believed that the victory had come from the Christian God. Constantine vowed to become a Christian.