providing protection services for survivors of sexual abuse in malawi
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Providing Protection Services for Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Malawi. Dr Neil Kennedy - Assoc Prof Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Malawi Dr Yabwile Mulambia – Paediatric registrar, College of Medicine, University of Malawi Prof Geraldine MacDonald - QUB. MALAWI. Blantyre.

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providing protection services for survivors of sexual abuse in malawi

Providing Protection Services for Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Malawi

Dr Neil Kennedy - Assoc Prof Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Malawi

Dr YabwileMulambia – Paediatric registrar, College of Medicine, University of Malawi

Prof Geraldine MacDonald - QUB

slide2
MALAWI

Blantyre

malawi
Malawi
  • Population 15.9 million
  • 52% less than 18yrs
  • 1 million orphans
  • 11% HIV prevalence
  • Falling under-5 mortality
child sexual abuse in malawi
Child Sexual abuse in Malawi
  • School-based survey 2005
    • 1 in 4 children had forced or unwanted sex by 16
    • 88.4% knew perpetrator
  • MoH Welfare monitoring survey 2011
    • 5% of children 12-18 had been raped in the previous 12 months
response to csa in malawi
Response to CSA in Malawi
  • Advocacy 
  • Legal / policy framework 
    • CSA guidelines 2005
    • UNCRC
    • 2010 Act
  • Provision of services for survivors 
february 2009 disjointed service
February 2009 – disjointed service
  • Police Station
  • Victim Support Unit

No psychological support



Hospital QECH

Social Services

february 2009 problems
February 2009 - problems
  • Poor recognition and facilities for CSA at QECH
  • Poor communication with police
    • Were we seeing all the referrals?
    • Were police following up on reports?
    • Did police understand the reports? (particularly if no medical findings WHICH ARE OFTEN NORMAL)
  • Little or no contact with social services
    • Were children being protected from further abuse?
    • Did social services hear about abused children?
  • Lack of psychological victim support
  • Unknown prosecution rate
  • No coordinated service for victims
march 2009
March 2009
  • Meeting of key stakeholders from:
    • Police – Commissioner child protection
    • Justice – JusticeTwea (NJJF)
    • Social services – Director Social Welfare
    • Medicine
    • UNICEF
    • Partnership to Protect Children
  • Establishment Blantyre Child Protection Team
  • Commitment to build ‘One-Stop Centre’ at QECH
slide9
Home visit by:
  • SWO
  • CCPW
  • VSU
one stop centre services
One-Stop Centre Services
  • Senior doctors trained in diagnosis of CSA and abuse
  • Services for women and children
  • 24 hours a day PEP / VCT / EC
  • Specialist child protection social worker
    • Ensure place of safety
    • Coordination with local CCPW and police
  • Police victim support
  • Volunteer led child trauma counselling
evaluation of osc services to determine
Evaluation of OSC services to determine:
  • The proportion of children attending that received services in accord with national guidelines.
  • The factors that encourage or discourage the use of the service by children and their families
  • The perceptions of quality of child protection services amongst service users and providers
methods
Methods
  • Investigator administered questionnaire in cohort of families of survivors 3 months after presentation
  • In-depth interviews with 25 of these families
  • IDI with 10 members of staff
  • August 2012-June 2013
  • Consented at presentation and re-consented at 3 months
  • Data collected in homes of survivors
slide15
228 Survivors of CSA

All consented to follow up

59 lost to follow up

62 withdrew consent

107 participants re-consented at 3 months

25 In-depth interview

107 questionnaire

moh guidelines
MOH guidelines
  • Adequately handled case:

2005 Malawi National Guidelines

WHO guidelines

slide18
18% of survivors received all services as required
  • 27% (29 / 107) - perpetrator convicted
factors encouraging service use why do they come
Factors encouraging service use – why do they come?
  • Multiple overlapping responses
    • fear of contracting HIV / need for prophylaxis-19/25
    • Justice-3/25
    • counselling -2/25
    • Pregnancy- 1/25
    • were referred by the police-1/25
    • Verification of rape- 5/25

“What we really wanted to find out was the HIV status of the child since there is AIDS…”

perceptions of quality
Perceptions of quality

73.8% (79/107) satisfied with the service

26.2% (28/107) were not satisfied with the service

  • 21- Police
    • 9 corruption-police
    • 3 negligence by the police
  • 4 -Justice
    • Sentence too short
  • 2 - health services
    • PEP not provided
    • Medical exam took too long
  • 1- counselling (required more sessions)
slide21
“She (Mercy) has been raped by her step-father since 2011. At first she told her aunt, her uncle, then neighbors, her teacher at school but none helped her…she also reported to the police …who gave a letter to give to her step-father for him to go to the police…”
  • “She was raped by 5 men of whom some were children of our neighbours. Its been five months since we first went to court. We were awaiting evidence given by the police. We went to court that morning and the police didn’t show up. The police officer present used our airtime to call him and he answered saying, “why did not you tell me all this time I would have prepared, I don’t have transport”. These men still keep threatening the girl”
provider perceptions
Provider perceptions
  • Offered a good service, but that conviction rates (27%) should be higher.
  • Lack of transport funds hinders appropriate social welfare provision.
  • Many magistrates, investigators and prosecutors still lack the basic skills to deal appropriately with child survivors of sexual abuse.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • The OSC model is an appropriate means to deliver high quality care to CSA survivors in urban Malawi
  • Fear of contracting HIV is driving disclosure
an opportunity exists to break the cycle of abuse
An opportunity exists to break the cycle of abuse
  • Shame
  • Fear
  • Stigma
  • No use

DON’T TELL TELL

slide25
Shame
  • Fear
  • Stigma
  • No use
  • Fear of HIV
  • Justice

DON’T TELL TELL

conclusions1
Conclusions
  • Corruption amongst police is perceived to reduce prosecution rates.
  • Lack of transport reduces the effectiveness of the service.
  • Further training of prosecutors and magistrates to handle CSA cases is required
next steps
Next steps
  • Complete the analysis – harm from OSC?
  • Highlight availability of PEP to encourage disclosure
  • Secure sustainable funding for transport / communication
  • Roll-out training to reflect community perceptions of services provided
  • Specific training for prosecutors / investigators and magistrates of CSA
acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • UKaid
  • UNICEF
  • Association of Physicians
  • Members of the one-stop-centre team
  • Parents and children willing to share their story
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