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APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY. NEUROBIOLOGICAL. Biological processes influence behaviors Genetic factors influence behaviors Brain chemistry, nervous system, and hormones Localization of Function – Phineas Gage. EVOLUTIONARY. Natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes

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Presentation Transcript
neurobiological
NEUROBIOLOGICAL
  • Biological processes influence behaviors
  • Genetic factors influence behaviors
  • Brain chemistry, nervous system, and hormones
  • Localization of Function – Phineas Gage
evolutionary
EVOLUTIONARY
  • Natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes
  • How has anger facilitated the survival of our ancestors’ genes?
psychoanaltic
PSYCHOANALTIC
  • Psychodynamic
  • Unconscious motives influence behavior
    • Sexual
    • Aggressive
  • Past experiences/Childhood influence behavior
  • Sigmund Freud – Defense Mechanisms
  • Carl Jung – Collective Unconscious
behavioral
BEHAVIORAL
  • Personal experiences and reinforcement guide development
  • Environmental influences
  • Observational learning
  • Punishments & Rewards
  • Stimulus & Response
  • Ivan Pavlov
  • John B. Watson
  • B.F. Skinner
little albert
Little Albert

Watson and Little Albert

Brave New World

cognitive
COGNITIVE
  • Perceptions & Thoughts influence behavior
  • Mental Images
  • Information Processing
  • Thinking & Language
  • Memory Functioning
  • Stroop Test
s t r o o p effect

Stroop Effect

Messing with your mind since 1935

slide12
Red Green Blue Yellow

Orange Purple Yellow Green

Blue Orange Red Yellow

Purple Green Blue Orange

Red Green Blue Yellow

Orange Purple Yellow Green

Blue Orange Red Yellow

Purple Green Blue Orange

Orange Purple Yellow Green

Blue Orange Red Yellow

slide13
Red GreenBlueYellow

OrangePurpleYellowGreen

BlueOrangeRedYellow

PurpleGreenBlueOrange

RedGreenBlueYellow

OrangePurpleYellowGreen

BlueOrangeRedYellow

PurpleGreenBlueOrange

OrangePurpleYellowGreen

BlueOrangeRedYellow

questions
Questions?
  • Do we read words faster than we name colors?
  • Do you think children who haven’t learned to read yet would have an easier time with this test? What about older people? What about ESL or non-native English speakers?
conclusions
Conclusions?
  • Reading is automatic… a skill we learn and becomes more and more ingrained in us as we get older.
  • Color naming is a control process, something we must use directed attention to accomplish.
  • Other conclusions?
humanistic
HUMANISTIC
  • People are born good with the potential for excellence
  • People make free & conscious choices based on their experiences
  • Carl Rogers – Self v. Ideal Self
  • Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs (theory of motivation) = SELF-ACTUALIZATION
  • Victor Frankl
sociocultural
SOCIOCULTURAL
  • Ethnicity, Gender, Culture, Socioeconomic status create individual differences
  • Behavior influenced by rules and expectations of societal groups
cultural practice example sleeping arrangements
Cultural practice example: Sleeping arrangements
  • Infants sleeping arrangements during the child’s first two years
  • Culture (n.): A system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts, conscious and unconscious, transmitted across generations through learning.
je perspectives in psychology
JE: Perspectives in Psychology
  • Out of the 6 major perspectives of psychology, which one or combination do you personally support?
  • Justify your response with specific examples of behavior and explanations as to why you do NOT support other approaches.
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