X, Y, Z Affair. By: Emma Ellis. What was the X.Y,Z Affair.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
By: Emma Ellis
No, one is certain on who X,Y,Z were they
were publically showed as X,Y,Z. They're names were
later revealed as, Jean Conrad Hottinguer, Pierre
Bellamy and Lucien Hauteval.
The Hottinguer name has been connected with the
political, commercial, economic, cultural, and
religious life in Europe. His original name was Hans
Konrad, changed in 1764 to Jean-Conrad. He studied
finance in Geneva, where he took interest in the
emerging areas of commercial law. Became a
devoted student in public borrowing in both France
and Britain. Like Pierre Bellamy, Hottinguer was also
a banker, Swiss.
Pierre Bellamy was an American banker in Hamburg,
Germany and an important merchant. Bellamy was
known to be Tallyrand’s personal banker. Pierre was
also introduced as Tallyrand’s close friend by
Lucien Hauteval was a wealthy sugar planter from
Santo Domingo had lived in Boston, where he had
been acquainted with Elbridge Gerry. Lucien had
moved to Paris in 1796, and was known to be
especially friendly toward the United States.
X,Y,Z had worked for the French foreign minister,
Charles Tallyrand. Each person had their own
connections is to how they knew Tallyrand. Jean
Conrad Hottinguer, X, had known Tallyrand through
various land purchases in Pennsylvania. Pierre
Bellamy, Y, knew Tallyrand because he was his
personal banker. Lucien Hauteval, Z, had connections
to Tallyrand because he was a close personal friend
Napoleon Bonaparte was in charge of France during
the late 1700’s and early 1800’s. He led his armies to
victory after victory, and by 1807 France ruled
territory that stretched from Portugal to Italy. But his
attempt to conquest the rest of Europe failed when
he was defeated in Moscow nearly destroyed his
empire. He was exiled to the island of Elba, a year
later he returned to power for a short period, and
was sent to exile again to the island of St.Helena,
where he had died in 1821.
John Marshall: Definer of a Nation
By: Jean Edward Smith
Published: New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1996