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ENE 623 Optical Networks. Lecture 4. Pulse Propagation in Fibers. Problem: Inject an optical pulse of width  0 into the fiber at z = 0. What is the speed of propagation and what is  (z)? Given. Pulse Propagation in Fibers. Pulse Propagation in Fibers. Pulse Propagation in Fibers.

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pulse propagation in fibers
Pulse Propagation in Fibers
  • Problem: Inject an optical pulse of width 0 into the fiber at z = 0. What is the speed of propagation and what is  (z)?
  • Given
example
Example
  • Suppose N = 1.461 at λ = 1200 nm and N = 1.460 at λ = 1400 nm. Calculate and .
example1
Example
  • Assume Δ = 1 GHz, λ = 1300 nm, ΔT = 100 ps. What is the maximum L?
total dispersion
Total dispersion
  • Total dispersion = material dispersion + waveguide dispersion (+ modal dispersion + polarization dispersion).
  • Waveguide dispersion: neff changes with vj with λ.
  • Commercial multimode fiber:
    • GRIN fiber: modal dispersion = 0.3 – 1 ns/km.
    • SI fiber: modal dispersion = 50 ns/km.
solitons
Solitons
  • Pulses that can operate fiber with   0 with no pulse broadening (ΔT = 0).
  • It could be done by ‘non-linear effects’.
  • Still work to be done before solitons are practical.
example2
Example
  • Most of the attenuation is due to Rayleigh scatter. This form of scattering happens to be isotropic, so that some is scattered back toward the transmitter. If you have a fiber with an NA of 0.1 for which all of its 0.5 dB/km attenuation is due to backscatter, and you send a single light pulse of duration T = 1 ns into it, how many dB down will be the peak of the Rayleigh backscatter waveform? Assume that the core index = 1.45.
example3
Example
  • Design a single mode fused biconical coupler that accepts at one input a mixture of light at 1300 nm and 1530 nm and deliver 100% of one to one output and 100% of the other to the other output. Assume that throughout the coupling region, each fiber can be represented as having a 30 micron effective core diameter.
example4
Example
  • For the 16x16 star coupler shown in previous slides, what is the total loss and the excess loss in dB assuming each of the couplers has r = 1 with an excess loss of 1 dB?