Tennessee Master Meat Goat Producer - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Tennessee Master Meat Goat Producer

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  1. Tennessee Master Meat Goat Producer

  2. NUTRITION An Peischel Small Ruminants TSU / UT Warren Gill University of Tennessee Animal Science Department

  3. Teaching Objectives • Provide nutritional training in order to obtain functional “comfort level” • Cover the basics of small ruminant nutrition with an emphasis on forage utilization • Evaluate supplementation strategies that assure optimum efficiency

  4. Teaching Objectives • Assess and cope with factors that influence herd nutritional status • Review ration supplementation formulation methods • Discuss practical use of common feedstuffs

  5. Comparative Capacity of the GI Tractof Different Species

  6. Goat Nutrition FORAGE PREFERENCE BY HERBIVORES

  7. Goat Nutrition HOURS SPENT GRAZING / BROWSING PER DAY C = Cattle S = Sheep G = Goats H = Horses

  8. Nutrient Considerations • Goats browse vegetation of lower quality than cattle. • Goats utilize leaves, shrubs and stems that cattle avoid. • Goats will graze grass and browse forbs/brush closer if not managed effectively. • Goats sort grain mixes, therefore, offer supplements pelletized or textured.

  9. Browsing is important • Goats like to eat with their heads up • They select portions with higher nutrient content • Browsing is less likely to result in picking up parasites

  10. Conformation Conformation and Carcass merit Conformation Carcass merit Carcass merit

  11. Nutrient Requirements(on a dry matter basis) *gaining 0.44 lb/day

  12. Guidelines for Goat Supplementation Management • Forage is the foundation • Successful nutrition is almost always based on forage • Pasture, browse or hay must be of adequate quality and quantity

  13. Guidelines for Supplementation Management • Manage for quality hay • Harvest at optimal stage of maturity • Forage test to assess quality • Store in barn or under cover • Minimize soil contact during storage

  14. Guidelines for Supplementation Management • If needed, supplement efficiently • Provide quality mineral supplement • Base supplements on forage tests • Replacements, first kid does and thin does may need additional supplementation • Low quality hay or forage may require supplemental protein • Avoid high levels of corn (>0.4% BW)

  15. Ruminant Digestion • Goats use forages to produce a high-quality source of vitamins, minerals, energy and protein in the form of meat and milk • This is because they are ruminants • Ruminants ruminate – chew the cud • Microbes in their digestive system ferment cellulose which non-ruminants (humans, pigs) do not have

  16. Ruminant Digestion • Main source of energy • Humans - glucose • Goats - volatile fatty acids (VFA) • The compartments of the ruminant digestive system are: • Rumen • Reticulum • Omasum • Abomasum

  17. Ruminant Digestive Tract Duodenum Small Intestine Rumen Reticulum Rectum Omasum abomasum Pylorus Colon Cecum Large Intestine

  18. The Nutrition Program • Should be as simple as possible and supply nutrients for the doe to: • Give birth to strong healthy kids • Produce an adequate amount of milk to maintain kid’s growth • Maintain body condition score • Rebreed on schedule

  19. Principles of Nutritional Management • Nutrient needs of goats vary throughout the production cycle • Quantity and quality of the feed needed vary throughout the production cycle • Forage availability and quality also vary throughout the year. Understanding the above and planning and managing the nutrition program is key to success

  20. Water • Usually in excess of the need is provided • Not necessary to balance rations for water • Typically, balance rations as if they do not contain any water to avoid errors associated with mixing feeds of different water contents • Fresh, clean and always available

  21. Energy • Nutrient that is provided in largest quantity and is fuel for the body • Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) is most often used as an energy measure • Additional terms to describe efficiency • Digestible Energy (DE) • Metabolizable Energy (ME) • Net Energy (NE)

  22. Energy - Fiber • Ruminants typically obtain most of their energy from fiber – the microbes ferment (digest) the fiber, turning it into volatile fatty acids which are absorbed and used for energy). • Fiber terms: Crude Fiber (CF)Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF)

  23. Energy – Other sources • Plants also supply energy from starch, sugars and other soluble carbohydrates • Amount of these products can affect nutritional quality • For example, hay cut in the afternoon, after a day of photosynthesis, will be higher in sugar than hay cut in the morning

  24. Energy – other sources • If forage does not have enough energy to meet the needs of animals, we look for feedstuffs with higher concentrations of energy. • Corn – energy from starch • Distillers dried grains – energy primarily from fat (fat is most concentrated form of energy)

  25. Protein • The major component of muscle, hair, hooves, skin, internal organs and body chemicals • Composed of smaller units, Amino Acids • Goat rations balanced for protein rather than individual amino acids • Rumen microbes digest most of protein and change it to microbial protein

  26. Protein • Crude Protein (CP) - a reliable estimate of the protein content of feedstuffs • Another method of expressing protein • Metabolizable Protein (MP) system • Degradable Intake Protein (DIP) • Undegradable Intake Protein (UIP) • The MP system takes into account how protein is used by both the animal and the microbes in the rumen

  27. Examples of UIP (bypass) and DIP (rumen soluble) • Distiller’s Dried grains is a good bypass protein • Urea is classic example of 100% rumen soluble crude protein (not used much with goats because of sensitivity to urea toxicity)

  28. Vitamins • There is usually very little problem with vitamin deficiencies in goats • Only Vitamins A,D and E are not synthesized by the rumen microbes • They may need to be supplemented if green, leafy forage is not available for several months • Vitamin E is essential for utilization of Selenium

  29. Minerals • Macro-Minerals • Sodium and Chlorine are major components in body fluids that control functions, usually assumed adequate • Calcium is most abundant mineral in body and functions in structure of bones and teeth • Phosphorus is found with calcium in bones and teeth, is essential for reproduction, Ca:P should be app. 2:1

  30. Minerals • Macro-Minerals • Magnesium is used in enzymes and transmission of nerve impulses; deficiencies result in grass tetany • Potassium maintains ion balance; excess makes Mg deficiency (Grass Tetany) more likely • Sulfur is required nutrient, but usually in excess in TN, making copper and selenium more likely to be deficient

  31. Minerals • Micro-Minerals • Copper is component in enzymes, deficiency signs are rough hair coat and lower immunity and reproduction • Selenium is component in muscle and essential for shedding afterbirth, also important in immune system • Zinc is important in function of many enzymes, esp. in immune system

  32. Minerals • Micro-Minerals • Iron is necessary for oxygen transport, but too much can make copper less available • Iodine is necessary for energy metabolism, but feed additive is associated with preventing hoof problems • Cobalt, Chromium, Nickel and Molybdenum are needed, but not known if they are problems in TN

  33. Suggestions for mineral supplement for goats • Phosphorus = 4 – 10% • Calcium = 2 x Phosphorus • Copper = 1500 ppm (higher or lower depending on consumption – organic sources may be preferable) • Lower NaCl for goats (< 10%) • Magnesium = 2-4% (maybe higher if grass tetany is problem) • Selenium = 26 – 52 ppm • Cobalt, Iodine, Zinc, Iron, Manganese, Sulfur

  34. Mineral Levels by Year in Pasture A,B,CMineral estimates not sharing the same superscript are significantly different at P < 0.05.

  35. Forage Mineral Survey 2001 - 2004 • NAHMS (1999) indicated that 74% of tall fescue was deficient in copper • Virginia Tech showed that the presence of endophyte decreases copper absorption and utilization

  36. Mineral Levels by Year in Pasture A,B,CMineral estimates not sharing the same superscript are significantly different at P < 0.05.

  37. Mineral Levels by Season in Pasture A,B,CMineral estimates not sharing the same superscript are significantly different at P < 0.05.

  38. Keys to Improving Mineral Status • Monitor goats for deficiency symptoms • Monitor mineral consumption • Consult with mineral providers • Test forages for mineral content • Higher producing goats may have higher requirements • Imbalances can be corrected – organic minerals may be indicated • Don’t feed high copper mineral to sheep

  39. Mineral Toxicity and Nitrate Poisoning • Some minerals can be toxic, such as aluminum and fluorine • Most minerals have a maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) • Copper - 100 ppm • Zinc - 500 ppm • Manganese - 1000 ppm • Selenium - 2ppm • Sulfur - 0.4 % • Potassium - 3%

  40. Mineral Toxicity and Nitrate Poisoning • Nitrates are potentially deadly for goats, sheep, goats and horses • The vegetative portion of plants contain high levels of nitrates • Nitrates are especially high in forages which are stressed by frost, drought, insufficient sunlight and herbicides • Potential lethal level - 0.9% (9000 ppm)

  41. Steps in Balancing Rations • Identify the animals tobe supplemented • Classify the animals by • Weight • Age • Purpose • Lactating • Wean-offs • Slaughter • Vegetation management

  42. Steps in Balancing Rations • Select nutrient allowances to fit the animal’s need • Nutrient requirements are in Table 4 in the text

  43. Steps in Balancing Rations • Select feeds and supplements to meet nutrient requirements • Pasture and hay are the least expensive base feeds in Tennessee (most of the time) • Supplemental ingredients should be selected for nutritional value, local availability, price, palatability and safety

  44. Steps in Balancing Rations • Determine the amounts of each ingredient to use • Begin by testing base forage • Estimate the amount of base forage, then calculate the nutrients that are lacking • A trial-and-error approach works for most common rations

  45. Trial and Error Method • Step 1 • Identify animal – 60 lb wether gaining 0.44 lbs per day • Step 2 • Select nutrient allowances - Ex. Table 4 of text: 3.0 lb DMI; 1.95 lb TDN; 0.36 lb CP • Step 3 • Select feeds and supplements - Ex. Table 5 of text: Orchardgrass hay, Corn, Soybean meal

  46. Trial and Error Method • Step 4 • Determine amounts of each feed Example 1. Ration Balancing Sheet