PEACE KEEPING OPERATION (PKO) Annisa Pratamasari (070610057) Yunita Rizki P (070610400)
Peacekeeping? • Technique which has been developed to help control and resolve armed conflict. • Field operations established by the UN, consent of the parties concerned, to help control and resolve conflict, under UN command and control, expense collectively of the member state, military and other personnel and equipment provided voluntary, impartially between the parties and using force to the minimum extent necessary.
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) 1st UNs PKO. It’s unarmed military. Palestine, June 1948. • United nations Emergency Force (UNEF) 1st armed UNs force. Egypt, October 1956.
The Established Principles of Peacekeeping • Peacekeeping operations were UNs operations • Consent of the parties to the conflict • Peacekeepers must be impartial between the parties • Troops required for UNs PKO • Use of force
6 Type of PKO • Preventive deployment • Traditional peacekeeping • To support implementation of a comprehensive settlement • To protect the delivery of humanitarian relief supplies • The deployment of a UNs force in a country where the institutions of state have largely collapsed • Ceasefire enforcement
UNs Peacekeeping • 2 conflicting ideas: UN as int’l actor & UNs Peacekeeping has enjoyed some success after a long period of mixed results • Neutrality • State participations • Canada is an active UNs peacekeeper.
Born at the time when the Cold War rivalries frequently paralyzed the Security Council • UN peacekeeping goals were primarily limited to maintaining ceasefires and stabilizing situations on the ground, so that efforts could be made at the political level to resolve the conflict by peaceful means.
UN Intevention and Recurring Conflict • UN doubled the number for its peace keeping operation since 1989 but it’s doesn’t mean they succeeded in these operations. • Indicator of failure renewal of conflict, HR violations, hostage taking. • UN peacekeeping operations usually has had short-term success...
UN Intervention Level • Passive diplomatic interventions • Active diplomatic interventions • Operational deployment
Cause of Failure • Attacking the symptomps of a disease rather than its cause • Still using traditional peacekeeping approach • Late to respond and take actions yet quick to leave
The Cases • Bosnia parties were unwilling to cooperate • Angola 91-92 succeed:fair elections. Failed: after they leave, a new civil war began. • Cyprus 30 years, but failed to resolve the conflict • Cambodia and Namibia followed by peace settlement • Kashmir no resolution until now
Afghanistan Case • Keeping anarchy at bay requires well-armed and well-planned peacekeepingoperations as a sign from the international community that the world iswatching and ready to intervene—with force if necessary—to ensure stability. • Robust peacekeeping operations permit humanitarian aid to get where it is needed • After the War, US tried to maintain stability there facing problems such as rebel attack, poorly guarded border..
UN sent its peacekeeping operations but US insisted not to take the lead mopping up minimal interference • ISAF (International Security Assistant Force) mostly funded and trained by US • As times goes by, debates raise between UN and US about what to do next prolong the presence of ISAF vs. Train Afghan national military force. • the United States has the strongest reason to stay in Afghanistan and see peacekeeping through. Without U.S. leadership, a largerpeacekeeping force for Afghanistan will not be formed. • The United States cannot stand back and urge others to donate troops tothe mission if the U.S. government does not do the same. Leadership requiresparticipation, but the U.S. troop contribution to an expanded peacekeepingmission need not be very large.
Renala: Somalia, knp kok dilanggar? Gmn peran ICJ? Jk kpntgn ud brlarut2 mk PKO bwt ap? Icha: ICJ blm bs bertindak jk blm diminta. PKO hanya menjaga perdamaian aj, blm nyelesaikan mslh scr lgsg. Grace: ada transisi antara kekuatan dr yg slm ne tradisional k liberal. Ap konsep PKO hanya bs dilakukan tanpa UN? Ad g sih org int’l lain yg bs atasi? Dea: PKO cocok utk konflik sprt ap n g cocok bwt yg sprt ap? Ziyad: istilah peace making ud g relevan so diganti PKO. Klo PKO g bs nyelesaikan mslh, hny jaga aj,ap UN g brusaha bwt cr peace keeping yg lbh nyata? Tambahan dr Ziyad: otoritas PKO uda milik UN, jk ada organisasi lain yg pke peace keeping, so istilah peace keeping ud bkn lg milik otoritas UN.
Renala: seharusnya UN kasih waktu deadline. Grace: brbicara mslh peace making-peace keeping-peace building. Siklusnya gak mesti. Tergantung mslh yg terjadi.