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The Suitability of Algae Protein Residue as an Effective Biofuel By Alexis Barragan
Non-Renewable Energy Non-renewable resource is any natural resource that cannot be naturally replenish- ed in a human time scale. • Fossil Fuels • Coal • Oil • Natural Gas • Radioactive • Uranium
Renewable Energy A renewable resource is a natural resource that can be be replenished naturally at the same rate as human consumption so to not be completely depleted. • Biomass • Soil • Forests • Plants • Other • Solar • Geothermal • Hydro
Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the thermochemical decomposition of a organic substance at high temperatures without oxygen. Products of pyrolysis include: • Main Products • Bio-oil • Charcoal • Intermediate products • Syngas • By-products • Electricity • Thermal energy
The Advantages of Algae • Habitats: algae can grow on arable, non-arable land, saltwater, freshwater, waste water. • Sanitation: grows better in waste water and cleans the water as well. • Photosynthesis: When given CO2 the algae grows better and produces more oxygen. • Oil production: produces 15 times more oil than other plants like corn, rapeseed, or switchgrass.
Algal Biodiesel Process Both the oil press and the hexane solvent method produce leftover protein residue.
Question & Hypothesis • Question • Can the protein residue found after lipid extraction be used as a fuel source? • Hypothesis • Algae will be found to be a viable source of fuel when compared to other currently used fuel sources.
Samples • 2 Samples: • Algae with lipids extracted • Algae with lipids still intact
TGA • Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) is used to determine the amounts of bio-oils and boigas that are released at different temperatures. Can also be used to determine a target temperature in an industrial system.
Bomb Calorimeter • Heat of combustion of a particular reaction.
Calorimeter data of algae without lipids. Calorimeter data of algae with lipids.
Lowest temperature of algae with lipids: 25.20°C (T0) • Highest temperature of algae with lipids: 25.31°C (T1) • T1 – T0 = 0.11°C • Lowest temperature of algae without lipids: 25.03°C (T0) • Highest temperature of algae without lipids: 25.10°C (T1) • T1 – T0 = .07°C Essential in calculations.
Calculations Awl= Algae with lipids • ΔU = CcalorimeterX ΔT was the initial formula • ΔU = -10.7kJ/°C X 0.11°C • ΔU = -1.177kJ for the algae with lipids sample • ΔU = -1.177kJ = ΔUAwl X (MassAwl) + ΔUFe X (MassFe) • ΔU = -1.177kJ = ΔUAwl X (0.0761g) - .00688kg • … • -15.376kJ/g = ΔUAwl
Calculations cont. Awol= Algae without lipids • ΔU = -10.7kJ/°C X 0.07°C • ΔU = -0.749kJ for the algae with lipids sample • ΔU = -0.749kJ = ΔUAwolX (MassAwol) + ΔUFe X (MassFe) • ΔU = -1.177kJ = ΔUAwolX (0.0761g) - .00688kg • … • -10.22kJ/g = ΔUAwol
Algae with lipids: -15.376kJ/g • Algae without lipids: -10.22kJ/g Approximately 5 kJ/g difference. These values can be used to compare to other data from other sources of fuel.
Statistically Compare • Common Feedstocks: • Bamboo • Switchgrass • Bagasse • Corn Husks • Organic Waste
Conclusion Initial data seems to support my hypothesis, although additional data will be required for a more conclusive answer • Future Investigations • Compare Algae data to more fuels • Other?
Significance Algae biofuel firms: • GreenFuel Technologies: $92 million on fuel plant • Solazyme: makes deals with Chevron and Imperium Renewables • Blue Marble Energy: finds and cleans algae infested polluted water and turns the algae into biofuels • Inventure Chemical: algae-to-jet-fuel • Live Fuels: open-pond algae bioreactors • Solix Biofuels:biocrude closed-tank bioreactor • Aurora Biofuels: uses genetics to isolate specific algae strains to efficiently create biofuels • AquaflowBonimics: economically produces biofuel from wild algae • Petro Sun: 1,100 acres of ponds to produce 4.4 million gallons of algae oil.
Acknowledgements • Dr. Kevin Whitty, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah • Alonzo Martinez, Chemistry Department, University of Utah • Professors • Ashley Budd, Mentor • Academy for Math, Engineering, & Science