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The Suitability of Algae Protein Residue as an Effective Biofuel

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  1. The Suitability of Algae Protein Residue as an Effective Biofuel By Alexis Barragan

  2. Non-Renewable Energy Non-renewable resource is any natural resource that cannot be naturally replenish- ed in a human time scale. • Fossil Fuels • Coal • Oil • Natural Gas • Radioactive • Uranium

  3. Renewable Energy A renewable resource is a natural resource that can be be replenished naturally at the same rate as human consumption so to not be completely depleted. • Biomass • Soil • Forests • Plants • Other • Solar • Geothermal • Hydro

  4. Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the thermochemical decomposition of a organic substance at high temperatures without oxygen. Products of pyrolysis include: • Main Products • Bio-oil • Charcoal • Intermediate products • Syngas • By-products • Electricity • Thermal energy

  5. The Advantages of Algae • Habitats: algae can grow on arable, non-arable land, saltwater, freshwater, waste water. • Sanitation: grows better in waste water and cleans the water as well. • Photosynthesis: When given CO2 the algae grows better and produces more oxygen. • Oil production: produces 15 times more oil than other plants like corn, rapeseed, or switchgrass.

  6. Algal Biodiesel Process Both the oil press and the hexane solvent method produce leftover protein residue.

  7. Question & Hypothesis • Question • Can the protein residue found after lipid extraction be used as a fuel source? • Hypothesis • Algae will be found to be a viable source of fuel when compared to other currently used fuel sources.

  8. Can this “waste” product be used as an energy source?

  9. Samples • 2 Samples: • Algae with lipids extracted • Algae with lipids still intact

  10. TGA • Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) is used to determine the amounts of bio-oils and boigas that are released at different temperatures. Can also be used to determine a target temperature in an industrial system.

  11. TGA graph of algae with lipids.

  12. TGA graph of algae without lipids

  13. Bomb Calorimeter • Heat of combustion of a particular reaction.

  14. Calorimeter data of algae without lipids. Calorimeter data of algae with lipids.

  15. Lowest temperature of algae with lipids: 25.20°C (T0) • Highest temperature of algae with lipids: 25.31°C (T1) • T1 – T0 = 0.11°C • Lowest temperature of algae without lipids: 25.03°C (T0) • Highest temperature of algae without lipids: 25.10°C (T1) • T1 – T0 = .07°C Essential in calculations.

  16. Calculations Awl= Algae with lipids • ΔU = CcalorimeterX ΔT was the initial formula • ΔU = -10.7kJ/°C X 0.11°C • ΔU = -1.177kJ for the algae with lipids sample • ΔU = -1.177kJ = ΔUAwl X (MassAwl) + ΔUFe X (MassFe) • ΔU = -1.177kJ = ΔUAwl X (0.0761g) - .00688kg • … • -15.376kJ/g = ΔUAwl

  17. Calculations cont. Awol= Algae without lipids • ΔU = -10.7kJ/°C X 0.07°C • ΔU = -0.749kJ for the algae with lipids sample • ΔU = -0.749kJ = ΔUAwolX (MassAwol) + ΔUFe X (MassFe) • ΔU = -1.177kJ = ΔUAwolX (0.0761g) - .00688kg • … • -10.22kJ/g = ΔUAwol

  18. Algae with lipids: -15.376kJ/g • Algae without lipids: -10.22kJ/g Approximately 5 kJ/g difference. These values can be used to compare to other data from other sources of fuel.

  19. Statistically Compare • Common Feedstocks: • Bamboo • Switchgrass • Bagasse • Corn Husks • Organic Waste

  20. Conclusion Initial data seems to support my hypothesis, although additional data will be required for a more conclusive answer • Future Investigations • Compare Algae data to more fuels • Other?

  21. Significance Algae biofuel firms: • GreenFuel Technologies: $92 million on fuel plant • Solazyme: makes deals with Chevron and Imperium Renewables • Blue Marble Energy: finds and cleans algae infested polluted water and turns the algae into biofuels • Inventure Chemical: algae-to-jet-fuel • Live Fuels: open-pond algae bioreactors • Solix Biofuels:biocrude closed-tank bioreactor • Aurora Biofuels: uses genetics to isolate specific algae strains to efficiently create biofuels • AquaflowBonimics: economically produces biofuel from wild algae • Petro Sun: 1,100 acres of ponds to produce 4.4 million gallons of algae oil.

  22. Acknowledgements • Dr. Kevin Whitty, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah • Alonzo Martinez, Chemistry Department, University of Utah • Professors • Ashley Budd, Mentor • Academy for Math, Engineering, & Science

  23. Thank You!