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Success factors of bioenergy for CHG mitigation in Scandinavia Satu Helynen VTT Energy. 1. Use of biomass based fuels in Europe 2. Role of forest industry in bionergy sector 3. Combined heat and power (CHP) production 4. Development of new technologies on bioenergy

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success factors of bioenergy for chg mitigation in scandinavia satu helynen vtt energy
Success factors of bioenergy for CHG mitigation in ScandinaviaSatu HelynenVTT Energy

1. Use of biomass based fuels in Europe

2. Role of forest industry in bionergy sector

3. Combined heat and power (CHP) production

4. Development of new technologies on bioenergy

5. Financial and legislative incentives

6. Future challenges

IEA Bioenergy Task 38 workshop 12-13 November 2001 in Edinburgh

slide2

Current use of biomass fuels

Source: ALTENER AFB-net V, Task 2: Import & Export Possibilities and Fuel Prices

slide3

Annual biomass resources andthe share of the present use

Source: ALTENER AFB-net V, Task 2: Import & Export Possibilities and Fuel Prices

slide4

Annual fellings in Europe

Finnish Statistical Yearbook of Forestry 1999, Temperate and Boreal

Forest Resources Assessment 2000, FAO

slide6

Existing power and heating plants using

biomass in Finland

Combustion pcs/MWth

- grate firing up to 100 MW >200/>2000

- fluidised bed boilers: 5 - 300 MW bubbling bed 30/2500

20 - 600 MW circulating bed 15/1500

- recovery boilers for black liquor up to 500 MW 20/4300

Gasification

- fixed bed gasifiers up to 10 MW 10/50

- fluidised bed gasifiers up to 100 MW 2/100

slide7

Background for the development and choice

of fluidised bed technology

  • debarking of logs was moved to paper, pulp and saw mills: boilers needed for demolition of wet bark (up to 60 % moisture content)
  • wet bark did not satisfy steam demand of the mill alone, coal and peat were used as additional fuels
  • municipalities built peat fired pulverised fuel boilers that have converted to bubbling beds using also wood chips
  • paper and pulp mills converted grate boilers to bubbling beds in order to utilise in the same boiler milled peat, coal, wood chips and sludges
slide9

Power output,

Fuels

Technology

Status

MW

e

< 1

solid biomass

Stirling (< 500 kWe)

D

biomass (flue gas)

ORC -Organic Rankine Cycle

D

biogas

Engine

C

1 - 3

solid biomass

Direct combustion and steam turbine/engine

C

solid biomass

Gasifier and engine

C

liquid biomass

Engine

D

> 5 (max. 280

solid biomass

Grate or fluidised bed combustion and

C

MW under

steam turbine (Rankine)

construction)

solid biomass and

Gasifier connected in existing steam boiler

C

waste

(Rankine)

solid biomass and

Pressurized gasification or combustion with

D

waste

gas and steam turbine (IGCC)

Biomass CHP technologies

slide11

Finnish experiences how to reduce priceson biomass-based fuels

  • competition and operating fuel market are needed: more than one fuel supplier operating nationally and hundreds of local contractors
  • presently short-term contracts (<1 year) and contracts with several suppliers are preferred by energy producers
  • boilers and plants are designed for several fuels: biomass is used only if it is the most competitive alternative
  • harvesting and logistics of biomass-based fuels is integrated to wood procurement for pulp and saw mills
  • harvesting methods are developed systematically
slide15

Cost structure and prices of wood fuelsin Finland

LOGGING RESIDUES

  • Chipping 34 % of costs
  • Average price in 1999
    • 44 FIM/MWh
    • 14.7 DEM/MWh

SMALL-SIZED WOOD

  • Harvesting 31% of costs
  • Average price in 1999
    • 61 FIM/MWh
    • 20.3 DEM/MWh

SUPPORT FOR WOOD FUELS

  • Harvesting; young stands 14 FIM/MWh (30 FIM/m3)
  • Chipping 12 FIM/MWh (10 FIM/m3 loose) young stands
  • Electricity 25 FIM/MWhe(6 - 12 FIM/MWh for fuel)
slide16

Stoves and small boilers for buildings:large potential to reduce the use of oil

  • Operation and maintenance should be easy
  • High efficiency and low emissions
  • -> High quality fuels: Pellets and bio-oils
slide17

Financial incentives for promotion of bioenergy in Finland

  • Investments on R&D&D in order to reduce costs of fuels and energy production
  • Investment subsidies: 5 % - 50 % (demonstration)
  • Carbon dioxide taxes for fossil fuels, since 1997 only for heat production because deregulation of electricity market
  • Subsidies for indigenous fuels to make them competitive compared to imported fuels: electricity produced by wood fuels 4.2 euros/MWh (wind 6.9 euros/MWh)
slide19

Future challenges

  • Scandinavian countries have been during the last 30 years a demonstration field for new large scale bioenergy technologies:
  • Available commercial products for biomass and waste:
  • bubbling fluidised bed boiler
  • circulating fluidised bed boiler
  • atmospheric fluidised bed gasifier
  • Under development:
  • once-through supercritical fluidised bed
  • fixed bed gasifier connected to an engine
  • new cofiring concepts for coal boilers
  • PFBC and IGCC
  • gasification of black liquor
  • concepts for integrated bioproduct (fibre, chemicals, liquid biofuels, pellets, etc.) and bioenergy production from biomass and waste