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Just-in-Time Lecture. Haiti Earthquake. January 12, 2010. Haiti's presidential palace before (top) and after the earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY . Satellite Photos of Haiti Before and After the Earthquake. What is the Earthquake?.

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Haiti earthquake l.jpg

Just-in-Time Lecture

Haiti Earthquake

January 12, 2010




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What is the Earthquake? earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

The shaking of earth caused by waves moving on and below the earth's surface and causing: surface faulting, tremors vibration, liquefaction, landslides, aftershocks and/or tsunamis.


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How Earthquake Happens? earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

  • It caused by a sudden slip on a FAULT.

  • Stresses in the earth's

    outer layer push sides of

    fault together.

  • Stress builds up & rocks

    slips suddenly, releasing

    energy in waves that travel

    through the earth's CRUST

    & cause the shaking that we

    Feel during an earthquake.


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Earthquake Strength Measures earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

I) Magnitude & II) Intensity

I) Magnitude:

  • Definition:A measure of actual physical energy release at its source as estimated from instrumental observations.

  • Scale:Richter Scale

    • By Charles Richter, 1936

    • Open-ended scale

    • The oldest & most widely used

Noji 1997


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Earthquake Strength Measures earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

I) Magnitude & II) Intensity

II) Intensity:

  • Definition:a measure of the felt or perceived effects of an earthquake rather than the strength of the earthquake itself.

  • Scale:Modified Mercalli (MM) scale

    • 12-point scale, ranges from barely perceptible earthquakes at MM I to near total destruction at MM XII


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Magnitude earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY versus Intensity

  • Magnitude refers to the force of the earthquake as

    a whole, while intensity refers to the effects of an

    earthquake at a particular site.

  • An earthquake can have just one magnitude, while

    intensity is usually strongest close to the epicenter

    & is weaker the farther a site is from the epicenter.

  • The intensity of an earthquake is more germane to

    its public health consequences than its magnitude.


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Public Health Consequences earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

of Earthquakes

Please see the following addresses for above title:

Part I.

http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec13021/index.htm

Part II.

http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec13051/index.htm


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Just-in-Time Lecture earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

Earthquake in Haiti

  • Haiti latest and breaking national news and regional news from Haiti

  • Haiti Earthquake updates

  • Hôpital Albert Schweitzer Haiti daily notes

  • Google Crisis response


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Just-in-Time Lecture earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

Previous earthquakes on the island

  • 1751

  • 1770

  • 1842

  • 1946


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Just-in-Time Lecture earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

Earthquake Details


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Just-in-Time Lecture earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY


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Just-in-Time Lecture earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

Poverty: Major obstacle to effective disaster mitigation activities

  • Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the Americas

  • GDP per capita of 790 USD, about $2 per person per day (before the earthquake of 2010)

  • Ranks 149th of 182 countries in the United Nations Human Development Index (2006)


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Just-in-Time Lecture earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

Public Health Challenges

  • Large proportion of children unvaccinated

  • Before the earthquake, only about 40% of the population had access to basic healthcare

  • High prevalence of waterborne diseases and intestinal parasites (especially in children)

  • High rates of TB, HIV/AIDs, and malaria

  • Poor public health infrastructure


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Just-in-Time Lecture earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY

Public Health Dangers of Haiti Earthquake

  • Potential breakdowns in sanitation

  • Difficult access to clean water

  • Problems with housing and subsequent crowding

  • Dangers of tropical diseases outbreak

  • Fragility of existing public health system

  • Malnutrition



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30 years continuous evolution in the earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY practice of Crisis or Disaster Management

Civil defense

Emergency assistance

Disaster response and relief

Humanitarian assistance

Emergency management

Civil protection

Disaster mitigation and prevention

Disaster Risk Management

Strategic shift from managing a disastrous event to more preventive and proactive approaches!!


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What is Disaster risk reduction earthquake Photo: AFP/GETTY (disaster reduction or DRR)?

The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development !


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A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

What is the Hazard?


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What is the Vulnerability? activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmentalfactors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.

Vulnerable Haiti:

Unprepared people

Non-resistant house & school building

High-density population

etc.


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What is Risk? activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards & vulnerable conditions.

Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability


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What is a Disaster ? activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.


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What is a Disaster? activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

A disaster is a function of the risk process.

It results from the combination of hazards, conditions of vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential negative consequences of risk.

What is a Disaster?


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Just-in-Time Education activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

Let’s teach the communities right now !

Risk awareness & Knowledge development including education, training, research and information are of the important fields of action for Disaster Risk Reduction!


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Information …. activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

  • People need information as much as

    water, food, medicine or shelter.

  • Information can save lives, livelihoods &

    resources.

  • Lack of information can make

    people victims of disaster.

World Disaster Report 2005 – IFRC/RCS


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What we should do/do not before, activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

during & after the earthquake?

Please read carefully at:

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/faq/prepare.html


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List of Supercourse lectures on Earthquakes activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

  • Tectonic explanation of the May 12, 2008, Sichuan Earthquakein ChineseChina Earthquake: 12 May 2008. Short versionin Chinesein Spanish

  • China Earthquake: 12 May 2008. Long version

  • Pakistani Earthquake. 8 October 2005(Spanish version)

  • Earthquakes 2000 to 2005 From Indonesia to Pakistan

  • A Case Study for the Setting of Water Supply & Sanitation Priorities in the PAK Emergency

  • Earthquake & Tsunami South Asia, 26 Dec 2004

  • Earthquake Mitigation(in Spanish)


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List of other useful Lectures on Disasters at Supercourse activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

  • Dead Bodies and Disasters: Principles of Mortuary Services(in Spanish)

  • Public Health Disaster Consequences of Disasters(In Spanish)(In Russian)(In Arabic)(In Portuguese)(in Japan)

  • Safety matters: How to Safely Evacuate from your Home

  • DataforDecisionmakingindisasters: advancesandcontroversies


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A Tectonic explanation of the activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.May 12, 2008, Sichuan Earthquake

Professor Emeritus Tanya M. Atwater

Member, U. S. National Academy of Sciences

Dept. Earth Science, 1006 Webb Hall

University of California, Santa Barbara

Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9630

atwater@geol.ucsb.edu