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Responding to Students Needs with an Individual FBA-FA/BIP . Office of Specialized Services Deborah E. Duskey , Chief Special Education Officer Kenneth Papineau , Director , Coordinated School Health. Agenda . Legal Requirements for FBA/FA-BIP
Office of Specialized Services
Deborah E. Duskey,
Chief Special Education Officer
Kenneth Papineau, Director , Coordinated School Health
Individuals with Disability Act 1997 (IDEA) and Reauthorization 2004: Requires the development of positive behavioral supports; pre-intervention methodology must be used before functional behavioral assessments for children with disabilities are implemented and before a removal for over 10 days during the school year.
Sections 14-08 .05, of the 23 Illinois School Code: Requires each school board to establish and develop policies and procedures on the use of behavioral interventions for students with disabilities who require behavior intervention supports. The emphasis is upon positive interventions designed to develop and strengthen desirable behaviors. Adopted January 1, 1996
Behavior Intervention Act (P.A. 89-191) July 21, 1995 enacted by the Illinois General Assembly requiring school districts to develop and implement positive behavior intervention policies and procedures
Chicago Public Schools Notice: Mandates parental notification regarding behavior intervention procedures
Functional Behavioral Assessment
The first step in the FBA/FA-BIP process. FBA is a “fact finding” mission, a procedure for gathering information about a student in order to identify the function or purpose that behaviors serve. Functional behavioral assessment looks beyond the behavior itself. This process seeks to identify significant, pupil-specific social, affective, cognitive, and/or environmental factors associated with the occurrence (and non-occurrence) of specific behaviors.
Functional Analysis Functional analysis is conducted after behavioral data is gathered. It is the analysis of behavioral data which leads to hypothesis generation and identification of environmental factors, reinforcers and consequences which maintain student behavior.
Behavior Intervention Plan
Intervention plan based on behavioral science which is designed to have a positive influence upon a child’s actions or behaviors. This plan should contain strategies to teach the student functionally equivalent replacement behaviors (i.e., behavior that serves the same purpose but is more acceptable.) A behavior intervention plan should contain positive strategies, program modifications and supplementary aids and supports required to address disruptive behaviors. Behavior intervention plans based on an understanding of "why" a student misbehaves are extremely useful in addressing a wide range of problem behaviors.
Follow the path to develop a successful Functional Analysis Behavior Intervention Plan:
Team collaboration, direct and indirect data
collection, baseline data, analyze data,
hypotheses, function of behavior,
identify pre-intervention strategies
Schedule FA/BIP meeting team, parent, IEP
Participants, agency partners, monitor facilitates,
anyone records information
Monitoring: What do we want to know? What
is the simplest tool (s) to consistently use
to collect data? Who, What, When, How?
identify time frame, summarize data; strategies
Identify target behaviors, refer to the starting
point (data analysis) to answer the functional
analysis questions ,what worked, purposes) of
behavior, types of consequences
Identify positive instructional behavior
intervention strategies and techniques, based
on targeted behavior, rewards, types of con-
sequences, collect data, teach replacement
behavior, coincide with IEP goals, criteria
No behavioral change, reconvene,
SUCCESS! Fade external and environmental
Reinforcers and negative consequences.
Where Do You Begin?
The FAB process requires analysis of:
FBA-FA data collection includes direct and indirect assessments.
Direct Assessments consist of actually observing the problem behavior and describing the conditions or context that surround the behavior.
- ABC Charts
Indirect Assessments rely heavily upon the use of interviews with teachers and other adults who have direct contact with the student. Surveys, questionnaires and review of permanent products are also indirect methods.
- Behavior rating scales
- Review of student records, work samples
Discrete Behavior has a clear beginning and ending:
- Hitting other students
- Completing assignments
Continuous Behavior does not have a clear beginning and ending:
- Off-task behavior
- Angry mood
- Pouting, withdrawal
The following tools may be used for collecting functional
behavioral assessment data:
Understanding the Purpose(s) of Behavior
What adult or peer
Behavior will reinforce/
This goal behavior?
What is the goal?
What adult or peer
Behaviors are rein-
forcing this behavior?
(negative or positive
What event or setting
takes place prior to
the target behavior?
What behavior are
you targeting to
antecedents can you modify
to make proactive changes
in the environment
to Make the target behavior
What new behaviors might
you teach to the student to
replace the current target
How might you change
the adult’s behavior regard-
Ing the original behavior
and the new replacement
What happened before the problem?
Where did it occur? When did it occur?
What does it look like? (describe the Frequency, Duration Intensity/Magnitude of the behavior)
How often does the problem behavior occur?
How long does it last?
How serious is it? Or how intense is the behavior?
What happens after the problembehavior? (reactions and reinforcers)
How do you react?
How does the student react? How do other students react?
Develop a hypothesis about the function a particular student behavior serves. What data sources are necessary to test your hypothesis?
Use of Functional Analysis Data to develop interventions
The Behavior Intervention Plan should:
Consequences: Events that immediatelyfollow a behavior that have an effect on the likelihood a behavior will occur again. Consequences are either positive are negative and should match the severity and frequency of behavior
Behavior Intervention Plan
The Intervention Process
Mrs. Smith, a 6th grade teacher, began instructing her math class with reviewing academic/behavioral expectations. She assigned students to one of three groups: small groups at tables, working at the black-board and study centers. During this process, Lee, a retained 7th grader, became disruptive. When the teacher asked three students to solve a problem at the board, Lee began teasing the students and calling them names. Lee continued to tease the students when they returned to their desk. He then began taking pencils from two of the students. Mrs. Smith reprimanded Lee, however this was not effective. She then moved closer to his desk to monitor his behavior. Lee’s misbehavior then escalated and further disrupted the lesson. As a result, Mrs. Smith sent Lee out of class to the principal’s office. On his way to the office, Lee pulled the fire alarm and tore down bulletin boards.
Review Lee’s behavioral narrative and complete the Functional Behavior Pathway Chart.
Measuring Student Response to Intervention
Epstein, M., Akins, M., Cullinan, D. Kutash, K. and Weaver, R. (2008) Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom: A Practice Guide (NCEE#2008-012).
Shapiro,S.S. & Cole. C.L. (1994) Behavior Change in the Classroom, Self- management Sprick,, R.S. (2006) Discipline in the Secondary Classroom a Positive approach to Behavior Management Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T. & Hagan, S. (1998). Using functional assessments to develop behavior support plans, Preventing School Failure, 43, 6-14.
Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T. & Hagan-Burke, S. (2000). Overview of the functional behavioral assessment process. Exceptionality, 8, 149-160.
Council for Exceptional Children
http:// www.cec.sped .org
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools http://www.rowmaneducation.com/Journals/JEBP/Index.shtml
National Center for Student Progress Monitoring http://www.rti4success.org/
Office of Special Education Programs, Ideas that Work http://www.osepideasthathwork.org/
Council for Children With Behavior Disorders http://www.ccbd.net
“Treat people as if they were what they ought to be and you can help them become what they are capable of being”
Johann Wolfgang Van Goethe