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Responding to Students Needs with an Individual FBA-FA/BIP . Office of Specialized Services Deborah E. Duskey , Chief Special Education Officer Kenneth Papineau , Director , Coordinated School Health. Agenda . Legal Requirements for FBA/FA-BIP

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responding to students needs with an individual fba fa bip

Responding to Students Needs with an Individual FBA-FA/BIP

Office of Specialized Services

Deborah E. Duskey,

Chief Special Education Officer

Kenneth Papineau, Director , Coordinated School Health

  • Legal Requirements for FBA/FA-BIP
  • Components of FA-BIP: Functional Behavior Assessment and Functional Analysis
  • Components of FA-BIP: Developing the BIP
  • Components of FA-BIP: Monitoring the BIP
  • Review and Next Steps
training objectives
Training Objectives
  • Discuss legal mandates related to functional analysis and behavior intervention planning
  • Differentiate between functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and functional analysis (FA)
  • Review assessment process and data collection tools.
  • Identify components of functional analysis and the behavior intervention plan (BIP)
  • Develop a FA-BIP using case study data.
legal requirements
Legal Requirements
  • Mandates
  • Policy
  • Law
mandates laws and policies
Mandates, Laws and Policies

Individuals with Disability Act 1997 (IDEA) and Reauthorization 2004: Requires the development of positive behavioral supports; pre-intervention methodology must be used before functional behavioral assessments for children with disabilities are implemented and before a removal for over 10 days during the school year.

P.L. 105-17

  • Requires the exploration of strategies and a support system to address behavioral concerns that impede learning.
  • Required when students are facing disciplinary actions the exploration of strategies and a support system to address behavioral concerns that impede learning.
  • In-service for professional and paraprofessional personnel who provide special and general education support
mandates laws and policies6
Mandates, Laws and Policies

Sections 14-08 .05, of the 23 Illinois School Code: Requires each school board to establish and develop policies and procedures on the use of behavioral interventions for students with disabilities who require behavior intervention supports. The emphasis is upon positive interventions designed to develop and strengthen desirable behaviors. Adopted January 1, 1996

Behavior Intervention Act (P.A. 89-191) July 21, 1995 enacted by the Illinois General Assembly requiring school districts to develop and implement positive behavior intervention policies and procedures

Chicago Public Schools Notice: Mandates parental notification regarding behavior intervention procedures


Functional Behavioral Assessment

The first step in the FBA/FA-BIP process. FBA is a “fact finding” mission, a procedure for gathering information about a student in order to identify the function or purpose that behaviors serve. Functional behavioral assessment looks beyond the behavior itself. This process seeks to identify significant, pupil-specific social, affective, cognitive, and/or environmental factors associated with the occurrence (and non-occurrence) of specific behaviors.


Functional Analysis Functional analysis is conducted after behavioral data is gathered. It is the analysis of behavioral data which leads to hypothesis generation and identification of environmental factors, reinforcers and consequences which maintain student behavior.


Behavior Intervention Plan

Intervention plan based on behavioral science which is designed to have a positive influence upon a child’s actions or behaviors. This plan should contain strategies to teach the student functionally equivalent replacement behaviors (i.e., behavior that serves the same purpose but is more acceptable.) A behavior intervention plan should contain positive strategies, program modifications and supplementary aids and supports required to address disruptive behaviors. Behavior intervention plans based on an understanding of "why" a student misbehaves are extremely useful in addressing a wide range of problem behaviors.

purposes of fa bip
Purposes of FA-BIP
  • Defining and eliminating undesirable behaviors
  • To understand the function and structure of undesirable behaviors
  • To teach and promote alternative positive behaviors
  • FA-BIP is a process that is implemented when a student continues to exhibit challenging behaviors after school-wide supports have been implemented.
when should fa bip be used
When should FA-BIP be used?
  • When universal or small-group interventions have not proven effective
  • When a more restrictive intervention, setting or program is necessary
  • When the student or others are at risk of harm or exclusion from school
  • When a serious behavior is repeated
  • When the student is determined to have an Emotional Disturbance (ED)
  • When legally required
fa fa bip process flow chart
FA/FA-BIP Process Flow Chart

Follow the path to develop a successful Functional Analysis Behavior Intervention Plan:


Team collaboration, direct and indirect data

collection, baseline data, analyze data,

hypotheses, function of behavior,

identify pre-intervention strategies

Schedule FA/BIP meeting team, parent, IEP

Participants, agency partners, monitor facilitates,

anyone records information

Monitoring: What do we want to know? What

is the simplest tool (s) to consistently use

to collect data? Who, What, When, How?

identify time frame, summarize data; strategies

Identify target behaviors, refer to the starting

point (data analysis) to answer the functional

analysis questions ,what worked, purposes) of

behavior, types of consequences

Identify positive instructional behavior

intervention strategies and techniques, based

on targeted behavior, rewards, types of con-

sequences, collect data, teach replacement

behavior, coincide with IEP goals, criteria

No behavioral change, reconvene,

change interventions;

reinforcement schedule

SUCCESS! Fade external and environmental

Reinforcers and negative consequences.

components of functional behavior assessment functional analysis
Components of Functional Behavior Assessment/Functional Analysis
  • Identification of Target Behavior
  • Setting
  • ABC of Behavior
  • Purposes/Function of behavior
  • Previous interventions
  • Environmental conditions
  • Positive reinforcement, as viewed by student
dimensions of behavior
Dimensions of Behavior

The FAB process requires analysis of:

  • Topography behavior (how the behavior looks)
  • Observable and measurable description
  • Duration (how long, amount of time) is identified
  • Frequency (how often, the number of times) it occurs
  • Intensity (how strong, the force or power )
  • Latency (the time between trigger event and the behavior)
  • Target Behavior - behavior of concern that significantly interferes with a student’s ability to learn and teachers ability to provide instruction.
types of behavior 3 d s
Types of Behavior “3 D’s”
  • Destructive Behavior – Harmful to the student and others, can be life threatening
  • Disruptive Behavior – Behaviors that interfere with learning and/or social relationships, such as crying, work refusal or leaving one’s seat. Disruptive behaviors may escalate into destructive acts.
  • Distracting Behavior – behaviors exhibited by a student that makes it difficult for other students to concentrate.
data collection cycle

Problem Identification Collect Baseline Data

Functional Analysis of Behavior

Plan Evaluation

Progress Monitoring

Plan Development: Behavior Intervention Plan

Data Collection Cycle
fba data collection methods and tools
(FBA) Data Collection Methods and Tools

FBA-FA data collection includes direct and indirect assessments.

Direct Assessments consist of actually observing the problem behavior and describing the conditions or context that surround the behavior.

- ABC Charts

- Scatter-plots

Indirect Assessments rely heavily upon the use of interviews with teachers and other adults who have direct contact with the student. Surveys, questionnaires and review of permanent products are also indirect methods.

- Interviews

- Behavior rating scales

- Review of student records, work samples

data collection tools
Data Collection Tools
  • ABC Observation Form – A direct observation tool that collects information about antecedents, behaviors and consequences that maintain student behavior.
  • Anecdotal Records – Narrative recording of behaviors across settings. Anecdotal records are not a valid method for drawing conclusions about behavior, are primarily a means of initial documentation and information gathering.
  • Scatter Plot – A scatter plot is a chart or grid on which an observer records single events (e.g., number of student call-outs) or a series of events (e.g., teacher requests and student responses) that occur within a given context (e.g., duringteacher-led reading instruction, at lunch, on the playground). A scatter plot is used to identify patterns of behavior thatrelate to specific contextual conditions.
data collection tools22
Data Collection Tools
  • Frequency Assessment (chart) – Records the number of occurrences a given behavior within a specific time period, often gathered using a tally sheet/chart. The B.O.S.S. (behavioral observation of students in schools) is a method of frequency assessment.
  • Duration Assessment (Chart) – Measurement of the total amount of time a student engages in a given behavior. Generally recorded in number of minutes.
  • Intensity or Magnitude Rating Scale – a method of rating a student’s behavior using a numerical scale. For example, a scale of 1-5, 1 reflect noncompliance while 5 indicates cooperation during the entire class period.
behavioral frequency discrete versus continuous behavior
Behavioral Frequency: Discrete versus Continuous Behavior

Discrete Behavior has a clear beginning and ending:

- Hitting other students

- Swearing

- Completing assignments

Continuous Behavior does not have a clear beginning and ending:

- Off-task behavior

- Angry mood

- Pouting, withdrawal

data collection tools25
Data Collection Tools
  • Latency Chart – Indicates the length of time elapsed between a directive and the student’s response.
  • Extent of Time – The start and end time of a behavior reflecting the total number of occurrences.
  • Event Recording - A tally mark system which denotes the time and location of behavior. Behaviors are recorded using the ABC Model.
systematic observation and data recording tools and methods
Systematic Observation and Data Recording Tools and Methods

The following tools may be used for collecting functional

behavioral assessment data:

  • Informants, interviews, record review, systematic and direct observation
  • The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) Durand
  • The Instructional Environment System (TIES II) Ysseldyke
  • Screening for Understanding of Problem Behavior (Instructional Support System of Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania Dept of Education)
  • Outcome Analysis (Cessna)
  • Functional Assessment Interview (O’Neill & Horner)
systematic observation and data recording tools and methods28
Systematic Observation and Data Recording Tools and Methods
  • Information Gathering Tool (Jackson & Leon)
  • Behavior rating scales (e.g. Connor, Achenbach; Quay & Peterson; BASC: Walker & McConnell, etc,
  • Self or team generated questionnaires
  • Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence (ABC): Direct observation recording tool Cooper 1987
  • Functional Assessment Observation Form: Direct observation tool, multiple event recording log O’Neil 1997
  • Informant Interview tool O’Neil 1997
  • Scatter plot Analysis direct observation
  • Anecdotal Log, continuous written data recording
purpose s of behavior
Purpose(s) of Behavior
  • Avoidance of Task or person
  • Escape a situation
  • Power struggle
  • Control of the environment
  • Revenge
  • To gain access to a specific item
  • Attention from peer (s) or teacher
motivation for student behavior secondary needs
Motivation for Student Behavior: Secondary Needs
  • Gregariousness: the need to associate with a group, to avoid solitary life.
  • Aggression: the need to assert oneself, to be counted.
  • Affiliation: the need to form relationships, to be liked by others, to be sought out.
  • Inquisitiveness: the need to question, to be curious, to pry.
motivation for student behavior secondary needs33
Motivation for Student Behavior: Secondary Needs
  • Achievement: the need to succeed, to be recognized.
  • Power: the need to have control over one’s own or others’ lives.
  • Status: the need to be significant, to count, to be “somebody”.
  • Autonomy: the need to be one’s own boss, to be a leader.
abc strategy
“ABC Strategy”

Understanding the Purpose(s) of Behavior

behavior pathway chart
Behavior Pathway Chart

What adult or peer

Behavior will reinforce/


This goal behavior?

What is the goal?


What adult or peer

Behaviors are rein-

forcing this behavior?

(negative or positive



What event or setting

takes place prior to

the target behavior?


What behavior are

you targeting to



What settings/context/

antecedents can you modify

to make proactive changes

in the environment

to Make the target behavior


What new behaviors might

you teach to the student to

replace the current target


How might you change

the adult’s behavior regard-

Ing the original behavior

and the new replacement


helpful abc questions
Helpful ABC Questions


What happened before the problem?

Where did it occur? When did it occur?


What does it look like? (describe the Frequency, Duration Intensity/Magnitude of the behavior)

How often does the problem behavior occur?

How long does it last?

How serious is it? Or how intense is the behavior?


What happens after the problembehavior? (reactions and reinforcers)

How do you react?

How does the student react? How do other students react?

common data analysis mistakes
Common Data Analysis Mistakes
  • Making assumptions about behaviors
  • Deducing conclusion from anecdotal evidence
  • Selecting weak reinforcers
  • Selecting a reinforcer which does not match the target behavior
  • Selecting ineffective instructional interventions
  • Lack of precision – imprecise terms and information
  • Lack of fidelity in data collection
hypothesis generation what when where why questions
Hypothesis Generation What, When, Where, Why questions

Team Brainstorm

Develop a hypothesis about the function a particular student behavior serves. What data sources are necessary to test your hypothesis?

behavior intervention plan development

Behavior Intervention Plan Development

Use of Functional Analysis Data to develop interventions

components of behavior intervention plan bip
Components of Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP
  • Specific behavior management plan generated after careful functional analysis of the functional behavioral assessment data.
  • Developed for the purpose of increasing desired student behaviors and reducing less desirable behavior.
  • Includes three categories of Interventions: Nonrestrictive, Restrictive and Highly Restrictive Interventions
  • Includes: Evidence based interventions and programs i.e. Social Skills training, social reinforces, rewards, charting, point based programs, rewards, consequences, Self- management techniques (Think Aloud), Applied Behavior Analysis, Contracts, DISTAR etc.
interventions should be
Interventions should be….
  • Acceptable to teachers, not overly time consuming
  • Based upon your hypothesis; review possible maintaining factors and communicative intent of the behavior, as defined by the functional assessment and analysis
  • Emphasize positive interventions
  • Teach replacement behaviors to help student meet SEL standards and benchmark goals
intervention categories
Intervention Categories
  • Nonrestrictive Interventions : Least likely to involve isolation, physical discomfort, or psychological distress to the student and the use of the most normal type of procedures as is practical. Non-restrictive interventions do not require the development of a BIP, and can be part of school-wide positive behavior supports.
  • Self-Management Techniques - Encompass a range of internal and/or external activities a student may engage in that increase or decrease the probability of appropriate behaviors, these techniques are based upon cognitive behavioral theory. Examples include relaxation techniques and self-monitoring.
  • Restrictive Interventions – Used after a nonrestrictive intervention has proven ineffective, can adversely impact student learning. Should be used in conjunction with a positive intervention to strengthen a competing behavior.
intervention categories47
Intervention Categories
  • Highly Restrictive Interventions: Associated with deprivation procedures, high risk of negative side effects and used as a last resort.
  • Emergency Situation: a situation which requires an immediate and restrictive intervention to protect students, other individuals or school property. These involve the threat of harm to the student or others.
uses of behavior intervention plans
Uses of Behavior Intervention Plans
  • Behavior Intervention Plans may be used at Tier III, for students within the General Education Setting in need of more intensive supports
  • Behavior Intervention Plans are also used within Individual Education Plans (IEP) for student’s with disabilities.
incorporating the bip within the iep
Incorporating the BIP within the IEP

The Behavior Intervention Plan should:

  • Render the problem behavior irrelevant, ineffective and inefficient
  • Should enable the student to meet Social Emotional Learning Standards and benchmark goals
  • Empower the student to use alternative behavioral strategies to get his/her needs met
types of reinforcement
Types of Reinforcement
  • Positive Reinforcement – A satisfying or valued consequence (item or event) that follows or is produced by a behavior that results in the increased or sustained occurrence of the behavior.
  • Negative Reinforcement – the removal/ avoidance of a noxious item or event as a consequence of a behavior that results in the increased or sustained occurrence of the behavior.
  • Differential Reinforcement – Reinforcement for alternative or incompatible behaviors to the inappropriate behavior.
types of consequences
Types of Consequences

Consequences: Events that immediatelyfollow a behavior that have an effect on the likelihood a behavior will occur again. Consequences are either positive are negative and should match the severity and frequency of behavior

  • Natural – Natural consequences are outcomes that are not planned or controlled and happen as a result of specific behavior.
  • Logical – Logical consequences are planned by the teacher or administration
  • External - Externally implemented by a teacher, administrator (positive or negative) i.e. Loss of points, Time Owed, Time – out, restitution, Detention, Demerits, office referral,
  • Internal – Internal response to consequence, may include student’s feelings, mood or self-concept.
behavioral outcomes and the iep
Behavioral Outcomes and the IEP

Behavior Intervention Plan

group activity

Group Activity

The Intervention Process

group activity applications of the abc method
Group Activity: Applications of the “ABC” Method

Behavioral Narrative

Mrs. Smith, a 6th grade teacher, began instructing her math class with reviewing academic/behavioral expectations. She assigned students to one of three groups: small groups at tables, working at the black-board and study centers. During this process, Lee, a retained 7th grader, became disruptive. When the teacher asked three students to solve a problem at the board, Lee began teasing the students and calling them names. Lee continued to tease the students when they returned to their desk. He then began taking pencils from two of the students. Mrs. Smith reprimanded Lee, however this was not effective. She then moved closer to his desk to monitor his behavior. Lee’s misbehavior then escalated and further disrupted the lesson. As a result, Mrs. Smith sent Lee out of class to the principal’s office. On his way to the office, Lee pulled the fire alarm and tore down bulletin boards.

group activity applications of abc method to promote student success
Group Activity: Applications of “ABC” Method to promote Student Success

Review Lee’s behavioral narrative and complete the Functional Behavior Pathway Chart.

  • Get in small group
  • Identify a scribe/recorder
  • Identify a reporter
  • All other members are the team (teacher reg./spec., social worker, nurse, dean, case manager) etc.,
complete the abc chart
Complete the ABC Chart
  • Complete the second row using information from the behavioral narrative (Lee).
  • Complete the third row using best practices to prevent Lee’s behavioral episode.
decreasing lee s problematic behavior
Decreasing Lee’s Problematic Behavior
  • Alter triggers
  • Increase engagement
  • Reinforce rules positively
  • Maintain structure in classroom
  • Strong consequences and meaningful rewards
plan evaluation
Plan Evaluation

Progress Monitoring

Measuring Student Response to Intervention

plan evaluation60
Plan Evaluation
  • Baseline data and progress monitoring data are collecting using the same measurement tool.
  • Collection of progress monitoring data is on-going
  • Identify time-line for data review
  • If no progress, review plan and modify intervention.

To Summarize:Did the Students Make Sufficient Progress?

Continue monitoring

Modify Interventions,

Reconvene team



fa fa bip cheat sheet
FA-FA/BIP Cheat Sheet
  • Determine the function of the undesired behavior
  • Determine an appropriate replacement behavior
  • Determine when the replacement behavior should occur
  • Design a teaching sequence
  • Manipulate the environment to increase the probability of success
  • Manipulate the environment to decrease the probability of failure
  • Determine how positive behavior will be reinforced
  • Determine consequences for instances of problem behavior
  • Develop behavioral goals

Epstein, M., Akins, M., Cullinan, D. Kutash, K. and Weaver, R. (2008) Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom: A Practice Guide (NCEE#2008-012).

Shapiro,S.S. & Cole. C.L. (1994) Behavior Change in the Classroom, Self- management Sprick,, R.S. (2006) Discipline in the Secondary Classroom a Positive approach to Behavior Management Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T. & Hagan, S.  (1998). Using functional assessments to develop behavior support plans, Preventing School Failure, 43, 6-14.

Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T. & Hagan-Burke, S.  (2000). Overview of the functional behavioral assessment process.  Exceptionality, 8, 149-160. 


Council for Exceptional Children

http:// www.cec.sped .org

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools

National Center for Student Progress Monitoring

Office of Special Education Programs, Ideas that Work

Council for Children With Behavior Disorders


“Treat people as if they were what they ought to be and you can help them become what they are capable of being”

Johann Wolfgang Van Goethe