Latin American Independence Unit 4 Notes
7-3.3 (p.107-110) peninsulares creoles mestizos mulattos Toussaint-Louverture Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Simón Bolivar José de San Martin 7-3.6 (p.129-132) Congress of Vienna* nationalism Louis-Napoleon* Camillo di Cavour Victor Emmanuel Giuseppe Garibaldi Wilhelm I Otto von Bismarck realpolitik* Ems Telegram* Unit 4 Key Terms (7-3.3, 7-3.6)
1804 – Haiti 1811 – Paraguay 1816 – Argentina 1818 – Chile 1821 Mexico Colombia Peru 1822 – Brazil 1823 – Guatemala 1825 – Bolivia 1828 – Uruguay 1830 Ecuador Venezuela 1838 Costa Rica Nicaragua Honduras 1840 – El Salvador 1844 – Dominican Republic 1902 – Cuba 1903 – Panama 1962 – Jamaica 1966 – Guyana 1975 – Suriname 1981 – Belize Timeline of Independence
Causes of Latin American Independence • inspiration from the American and French Revolutions • increasing feelings of nationalism • an abusive social order in Latin America
SOCIAL HIERARCHY Peninsulares: Native Spaniards Creoles: People of pure European blood But born in the New World P Mulattos: African + European blood C Mestizos: Indian + European blood M & M I & A Indians and Africans CAUSES
Bell Ringer • Without looking back try to draw the Latin American social pyramid and label it with as much information as you can.
Haiti: The Model for Revolution • model for revolution took place in Santo Domingo (Haiti) on the island of Hispaniola • the colony belonged to France • nearly all its inhabitants were slaves • rebellion led by Toussaint-Louverture began in 1791 with 100,000 slaves • by 1801, he had taken control of the colony and freed all enslaved Africans
Haiti: The Model for Revolution • in 1802, France sent troops to deal with the situation • Louverture was captured and sent to France where he died in a French prison in 1803 • the French could not stop the rebellion and in 1804, Haiti declared its independence, the only successful slave revolt in history • this was the first colony south of the United States to win independence as well
Revolution in Mexico • in Mexico, the revolt was led by two Catholic priests • Miguel Hidalgo – called for peasant revolt • José María Morelos – skilled military leader • the revolt began in 1810 – mestizos and Native Americans threatened the power of the peninsulares and the creoles • both leaders were captured – Hidalgo in 1811 and Morelos in 1815
Revolution in Mexico • Mexican independence was finally achieved in 1821 • this happened because Mexican creoles, who were afraid to lose their power to the lower classes, declared independence from Spain • in 1823, the nations of Central America declared independence from Mexico
South American Independence • José de San Martin led revolutions in • Argentina • Chile • Simón Bolivar (also known as Libertador) • Venezuela • Colombia (including Panama) • Ecuador • the two men joined forces in Peru to drive out the Spanish • by the end of 1824, nearly all of South America had successfully revolted and won independence
Simón Bolivar • known as the “South American George Washington” or “Liberator” • wanted to unite all of Spain’s South American colonies into one country known as Gran Colombia • this happened briefly but political issues separated the countries into their own independent states by 1830
Challenges for New Nations • wide social divisions • power in the hands of small groups • some used military power to govern • economic pressure from the U.S. and European countries
South American Independence • By what year had most of South America gained its independence? • What was unique about Brazil’s independence? • If you were the leader of a newly independent country, what would be the first thing you would do? Why?
Review Questions • The first Latin American country to gain independence was ______. • Haiti • Venezuela • Chile • Cuba
The leader of the Independence movement in Venezuela was ______. • Marquis de Lafayette • Toussaint L’ouverture • Miguel Hidalgo • Simon Bolivar
The people of Haiti gained their independence in 1804 from ______. • Great Britain • The United States • Germany • France
Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar brought independence to all of the following nations except _____. • Brazil • Peru • Colombia • Ecuador
During the 1800s, revolutions changed governments throughout Latin America. Which of the following groups governed Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America prior to the revolutions of 1800s? • Creoles • Peninsulares • Mestizos • Mulattos
Who Am I? • I led revolts in Chile and Argentina. I eventually joined with another revolutionary to liberate Peru.
Who Am I? • I was a Catholic priest and military leader. I took up the cause of independence in Mexico after the death of another priest. I was executed long before my country achieved its goal of independence.
Who Am I? • I began the revolt against the power of the peninsulares and creoles in Mexico in 1810. I was executed in July of 1811, long before my country would see independence. I still can’t believe they executed a priest.
Who Am I? • Some call me the “South American George Washington” or “Liberator.” I led the countries of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador to freedom. Then I joined with another leader to free Peru. I now have statues all over South America.
Who Am I? • Some say I started it all. I was a slave on the French sugar island now known as Haiti. It was called Santo Domingo. Even though I was in prison, my island gained independence in 1804. It was the first country south of the U.S. to gain independence.
Nationalism and German and Italian Unification Unit 4 Continued
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • What three things were accomplished by the Congress of Vienna? • reestablished the balance of power to Europe • restore the monarchs removed by Napoleon • suppress (stop) the democratic movement encouraged by the French Revolution • What three ideals fed the nationalist movements of the 1830s and 1840s? • liberty (freedom) • equality • fraternity (brotherhood)
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • What is nationalism? • the belief that one’s greatest loyalty is to a shared culture rather than to a leader or a border • cultural identity – pride in one’s own country that is based on shared customs and a common history (workbook definition) • nationalism is very closely related to patriotism
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • What were the two main aspects of nationalist movements in the 1800s? • unification – people with similar cultures from different places joining together in one new country (Germany and Italy are examples) • separation – groups breaking away from a government to create a new one that better represents their own interests (Greece is an example)
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • Who led nationalist movements that created new nation-states (countries)? • they were led by liberals and radicals • Where did nationalist movements in Europe begin? • they began in Greece with their rebellion against the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1821 • Greece had the support of Britain, France, and Russia and became an independent country in 1830
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • What happened to most nationalist revolutions by 1849? • most were suppressed (stopped) by conservatives by 1849 • the one exception was in France
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • Describe what happened to each of the following leaders in France: • Charles X – French king who tried to establish an absolute monarchy and failed and was replaced with Louis-Philippe • Louis-Philippe – French king who ruled until 1848 before economic problems caused him to lose favor with the people and he was overthrown and France became a republic under the control of moderates • Louis Napoleon – at first he was elected as president of the French republic but soon took advantage of political problems and declared himself emperor Napoleon III – he would bring stability and industry to France
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • Explain how Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi united Italy. • Cavour led the unification of the northern Italian states • he was the prime minister of the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia – the largest and most powerful Italian state • Piedmont-Sardinia had a liberal constitution that appealed to many of the middle classes • many neighboring northern Italian states saw this as a good thing and unified with Piedmont-Sardinia • with help from France, Cavour also won northern Italian territory that was previously held by Austria
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • Explain how Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi united Italy (cont.). • Garibaldi led unification of the southern Italian states • Garibaldi was a soldier and leader of a group called the Red Shirts • using military force, he captured Sicily in the south • Cavour convinced Garibaldi to unite the two sections of Italian states under King Victor Emmanuel II (king of Piedmont-Sardinia) with Rome as its capital • a short time later, Venetia and the Papal States were added to Italy as well
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • Who was Victor Emmanuel II? • king of Piedmont-Sardinia • in 1860, he became king of unified Italy
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • Describe the German Confederation. • 39 loosely joined states • Austria and Prussia were the largest and most powerful • Prussia had mainly Germanic population, strong army, and a liberal constitution which appealed to many Germans and made unification easier • Prussia’s ruler was Wilhelm I and he had the support of conservative Prussian nobles called Junkers • Who was Otto von Bismarck? • Junker from Prussia • prime minister of Prussia under Wilhelm I • he would ultimately take full control of Prussia
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • What was Bismarck’s policy of realpolitik? • “the politics of reality” • power politics without any notions of a perfect world – no room for idealism • speeches decide nothing – only hard work and real effort (“blood and iron”) got things done • Bismarck’s efforts to unify Germany was the idea of realpolitik in action
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • Bismarck fought three different wars of unification, the first being to take land from Denmark. Describe the role of the following in making German unification final: • Seven Weeks War • Bismarck purposefully created border conflicts with Austria in hopes of provoking them to attack Prussia • in 1866, Prussia defeated Austria, becoming the sole dominant power in the German Confederation • German states that had supported Austria now supported Prussia • Prussia did not claim Austria
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • Ems Telegram • King Wilhelm I of Prussia had a meeting with a French ambassador • the French made demands of Prussia under the threat of war • he relayed the message from the meeting to Bismarck • Bismarck changed the wording of the message to make the French ambassador sound threatening and Wilhelm uncooperative • the telegram was released to the press and printed in the newspapers • the goal was for the French to see it and be provoked into fighting with Prussia – it worked
What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions • Franco-Prussian War • Bismarck had hoped France would declare war following the publication of the Ems Telegram • Napoleon III declared war on Prussia in July of 1870 • by May of 1871, France was defeated and Napoleon III was captured • all the German states rallied behind Prussia and united to form the German Empire • Germany took territory from France that would be disputed for many years • this upset the balance of power that had returned to Europe following the Congress of Vienna in 1815