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Planning to Buy. Objectives:. Describe the merchandise planning function Outline internal and external sources of planning information Explain factors to be considered in preparing financial and merchandise assortment buying plans Describe ongoing inventory management planning

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Presentation Transcript
  • Describe the merchandise planning function
  • Outline internal and external sources of planning information
  • Explain factors to be considered in preparing financial and merchandise assortment buying plans
  • Describe ongoing inventory management planning
  • Explain the variables in selecting merchandise sources
the merchandising cycle
The Merchandising Cycle
  • Planning
    • Forecasting
  • Buying
    • Obtain merchandise through vendors
  • Selling
    • Direct and Indirect selling
the planning function
The Planning Function
  • Retail Buyers
  • Select and purchase goods for their companies
  • Responsible for one or more classifications or departments
  • Develop the merchandise plan
gathering information
Gathering Information
  • Internal information
    • Past sales records (most important)
    • Salespeople and managers
    • Want slips
    • Consumer behavior and opinions
    • Store fashion bureau
  • External information
    • Vendors and other buyers
    • Trade information

Do your homework before you buy.

preparing the buying plan
Preparing the Buying Plan
  • Six-month plan
    • Utilizes last year’s sales to project new season
    • Plan shows each month’s merchandise needs to meet consumer demand
  • Merchandise plan
    • Types and quantities
    • Price points
    • Set amount of money
buying terminology
Buying Terminology
  • Stock turnover (TO)
    • Number of times inventory is sold and replaced in a given period; how fast inventory goes in and out of the store
  • Open-to-buy (OTB)
    • The dollar amount of merchandise the buyer may order during the month
assortment planning
Assortment Planning
  • Buyers goal: Achieve a balanced stock assortment
  • Maintain basic stock
    • Sell regardless of conditions
  • Maintain model stock
    • Risky fashion items that rise and fall with consumer demand
  • Stock-keeping unit (SKU)
    • Smallest unit for which records are kept

Balanced Stock

additional planning considerations
Additional Planning Considerations
  • Maintain stock to meet consumer demand (depth and breadth)
  • If inventory low, build with current styles and colors
  • Supplement with complementary products
  • Specification buying
  • Consignment buying
  • Clearance or off-price
inventory management
Inventory Management
  • Computerized inventory-management systems
  • Electronic point-of-sale (EPOS) equipment
  • Vendor-managed inventory (VMI)
    • Quick response
selecting merchandise sources
Selecting Merchandise Sources
  • Manufacturers
    • Goods are latest styles
    • Prices are lower
    • Can be made to order
    • Merchandise support available
    • Higher quantities
  • Wholesalers
    • Resellers or distributors
    • Greater breadth and depth options from several manufacturers
    • Smaller quantities may be ordered
other sources
Other Sources
  • Web and catalogs
    • No sales pressure
    • Only photos, no fabrics
  • Importers
    • Favored by mass merchandisers
    • U.S. agents take orders
    • May be shipped direct to store
shopping for a vendor
“Shopping” for a Vendor
  • General Criteria
    • Payment and credit terms
    • Minimum purchase requirements
    • Reorders- usually not available on higher-priced goods
    • Return policies
    • Retail pricing rules
    • Distribution and confinement practices
other considerations
Other Considerations
  • Services
    • Training of salespeople
    • Promotional assistance
    • Fashion shows
    • Markdown insurance
    • Vendor pre-ticketing
    • Floor-ready merchandise (FRM)
look at past performance
Look at Past Performance
  • Working practices
  • Word of mouth reputation
  • Fairness
  • Accuracy of orders
  • Deliveries
  • Quality
  • Turnaround time (from order to delivery)
know what you are getting
Know What You Are Getting
  • Know terms
    • Discounts allowed
    • Payment period
    • Transportation arrangements
    • Date of delivery
    • Point of transfer of title to the merchandise
    • Allocation of transportationcosts

Don’t be pressured into anything!

choosing number of suppliers
Choosing Number of Suppliers
  • Single Supplier
    • Larger orders can mean quantity discounts
    • “Favored customer” status
    • Greater cooperation in developing exclusive products
  • Several Suppliers
    • Less dependence on one supplier if there is a problem
    • Access to market information
    • Better service (competition)
    • Wider selection
offshore sourcing

Lower cost, higher markups

Unique products

Consumers cannot shop and compare

Add status or prestige

More variety of goods

Jobs to developing countries


Buying trips longer and costlier

Longer lead times

No reorders

Communication problems

Sizing, fit, and quality

Legal complications

Financial risks

Delays in shipping

Takes jobs from U.S.

Offshore Sourcing
do you know
Do You Know . . .
  • Retailers have design control over private labels.
  • If a company participates in private labeling, there is no markdown money or warranties from the manufacturer if there are problems.