ljzj jofkf u7g wto n3 3 n tyf fgf pbf u ptkfbstj clea l4sf gbe n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ljZj Jofkf/ ;+u7g (WTO) : n3' 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u / pTkfbsTj clea[l4sf] ;Gbe{ PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
ljZj Jofkf/ ;+u7g (WTO) : n3' 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u / pTkfbsTj clea[l4sf] ;Gbe{

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24
kenna

ljZj Jofkf/ ;+u7g (WTO) : n3' 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u / pTkfbsTj clea[l4sf] ;Gbe{ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

0 Views
Download Presentation
ljZj Jofkf/ ;+u7g (WTO) : n3' 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u / pTkfbsTj clea[l4sf] ;Gbe{
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. ljZj Jofkf/ ;+u7g (WTO): n3' 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u / pTkfbsTj clea[l4sf] ;Gbe{ k|:tf]tfM Zofd k|;fb lu/L dxf;lrj g]kfn 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u dxf;+3 s]Gb|Lo sfof{no rfjlxn, sf7df8f}+

  2. WTO: k[i7e"dL • bf]>f] ljZjo'4sf qmddf ePsf] Polarization sf sf/0f Cross Country Jofkf/df cfPsf] cj/f]w x6fpg ax'klIfo jftf{åf/f ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+l3o kxn • !($* df -So'jf_ xjfgfdf ePsf] ;+o'Qm /fi6«Lo ;Dd]ngdf cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/ Jojl:yt ug{ k|:t't j8fkq dfly ;b:o /fi6«sf] ;xdtL kZrft eG;f/ / Jofkf/ ;DaGwL cfd ;Demf}tf (General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) sf] :yfkgf • To;kl5 ePsf ljleGg r/0fsf jx'kIfLo jftf{x? • UR p?Uj] r/0f !(*^–(#, (UR) sf] cGt;Dddf !@# /fi6« GATT sf] ;b:o_ af6 WTO sf] u7g ug]{ jftfj/0f lgdf{0f • Dof/fs]z ;Dd]ngdf ePsf] ;Demf}tf cg'?k ;g\ !((% hgj/L ! df WTO sf] :yfkgf

  3. WTO s] xf] < • of] dÚVotof 5 j^f cfwf/ :tedf cfwfl/t %M • sfgÚgdf cfwfl/t jxÚkIfLo Jofkf/ k|)ffnLsf] ljsf; • lje]b/xLt Jojxf/:clt ;f}ljWo /fi^«-Jojxf/ / /fli^«o Jojxf/ (Nation Treatment and Most Favoured Nation Treatment) • kf/bzL{tf • cNk ljs;Lt /fi^«sf] nfuL ljz]if Jojxf/ • ljjfb ;dfwfg ;DaGwL k|efjsf/L Joj:yf • sÚg} klg %nkmnsf] jxÚklIfo ?kdf ;j{;DdtLaf^ ul/g] . Psn lg)f{osf] :yfg g/xg] . • xfn;Dd o;df 148 ;b:o /fi^«x? %g\ .

  4. WTO sf] clwsf/ If]q • j:t"sf] Jofkf/ • ;]jfsf] Jofkf/ • af}l$s ;DklQsf] clwsf/ • ljjfb lg/fs/)f • jfl)fHo lglt k"g/fjnf]sg

  5. WTO:p2]Zo • a:t' / ;]jf Jofkf/nfO{ :jtGq ?kn] ljZjsf ;j} d'n's;Dd kx'+r k'¥ofpg' • Jofkf/ pbf/Ls/0f / jx'klIfo Jofkf/ k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf / Value Based / Principle Guided Jofkf/ k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf • eG;f/ nufot cGo Tarrif Barriers 36fpb} :jtGq Jofkf/ k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf • jftfj/0f tyf h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0f ub}{ cGt/f{li6«o lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff sfof{Gjog u/fpg] • ljZjsf ljleGg efudf /x]sf] k/Dk/fut lzk / snf tyf af}lås ;DklQ dfly pgLx?s} clwsf/ :yflkt u/fpg]

  6. WTOsf sfo{x? • ;Demf}tfx? sfof{Gjog u/fpg] • ;femf d+rsf] ?kdf sfo{ ug]{ • Jofkf/ ;DaGwL ljjfbsf] lg/fs/0f • Jofkf/ lgtLx?sf] ;ldIff • cGo lgsfo;+usf] ;DaGw lj:tf/

  7. WTOsf] cfwf/e"t l;4fGt • ;'zf;g, kf/blz{tf, ;'lgZrttf Good Governance/Transparency/Consistency • clt ;f}ljWo k|fKt /fi6« ;/xsf] Jojxf/ (Most Favored Nation Treatment) • ;dfg Jojxf/ (Nation Treatment)

  8. WTOsf] ;b:otf k|fKt ug]{ ljlw • GATTsf ;b:ox? :jtM ;b:o x'g] • af+sL /fi6«x?n] låkIfLo / jx'klIfo jftf{åf/f Jofkf/ ;DaGwL ljljw k|ltj4tf hfx]/ ug'{kg]{ / ljleGg ;Demf}tf ;DkGg u/L ;b:otfsf] nflu cfj]bg ug'{kg]{ (Accession Process) .

  9. Ministerial Conference

  10. WTO Secretariat Structure Director-General : Office of the Director-General: administrative support for (disputes) Appellate Body Council and Trade Negotiations Committee Division:General Council, Dispute Settlement Body, Trade Negotiations Committee (DDA), etc DDA Special Duties Division: Special focus on development assistance aspects of cotton and other selected Doha Development Agenda issues Human Resources Division: Information and Media Relations Division Deputy Director-General : Accessions Division: negotiations to join the WTO Economic Research and Statistics Division Legal Affairs Division: Dispute settlement, etc .Rules Division: anti-dumping, subsidies, safeguards, state trading, civil aircraft, etc. Deputy Director-General : Development Division: trade and development, least-developed countries External Relations Division: relations with the UN, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, parliaments, and protocol mattersTechnical Cooperation Audit Trade and Finance and Trade Facilitation Division:TRIMs, trade, debt and finance, balance of payments, links with IMF and World Bank, trade facilitation (simplification of trade procedures), trade and investment, etc.Training and Technical Cooperation Institute

  11. WTO Secretariat Structure Deputy Director-General : Agriculture and Commodities Division:agriculture, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc. Trade and Environment Division:trade and environment, technical barriers to trade, etc. Trade in Services Division: GATS etc. Deputy Director-General : Administration and General Services Division:budget, finance and administration Market Access Division:Goods Council, market access, tariffs, customs valuation, non-tariff measures, import licensing, rules of origin, pre-shipment inspection Informatics Division Intellectual Property Division:TRIPS, government procurement, and competition Language Services and Documentation Division Trade Policies Review Division:trade policy reviews, regional trade agreements

  12. Nepal’s Major Concerns: Issues • Development Dimension and Trade • Trade Facilitation • NAMA • Trade in Services • Agriculture • TRIPS • Technical Co-operation and Capacity Building • LDCs • E-Commerce

  13. *ANoÚ^Lcf]df g]kfn • ef/t;+usf] ;DaGw lr;LP kl% Uof^sf] ;b:otfsf] nflu ;g\ 1989 df g]kfnn] kxn u/]sf] . • kl% ef/t-g]kfn kf/jxg ;GwLsf] gljs/)f / k|hftGqsf] kÚg{:yfkgf kl% pQm kxn ljlng eP/ uPsf] . • ;g\ 1995 df Æko{j]Ifssf]Æ sf] ?kdf g]kfnn] *ANoÚ^Lcf]df k|j]z kfPsf] . • hÚg 1998 df ;b:otfsf] nfuL cf}krf/Ls ?kdf lgj]bg lbPsf] . • 11 ;]K^]Da/ 2003 df ljZj Jofkf/ ;+u&gn] g]kfnnfO{ ;b:otf lbg dGhÚ/ u/]sf] . • 23 dfr{ 2004 df cgÚdf]bgsf] nfuL g]kfnn] b:tfj]hk]z u/]sf] . • 23 ck|Ln 2004 df ljZj Jofkf/ ;+u&gsf] 147 cf}+ ;b:otf k|fKt u/]]]sf] .

  14. g]kfnn]WTO;b:otf lng'kg]{ sf/0f • ljZjsf clwsfFz /fi6«n] WTO sf] ;b:otf lnO{ ;s]sf] • ljZjsf] ()∞ Jofkf/ WTO sf] ;b:o /fi6« ljr eO/x]sf] • g]kfnsf] a}b]lzs Jofkf/sf] d'Vo c+z WTO sf ;b:o /fi6«;+u eO/x]sf] • If]qLo sf/0f • Jofkf/ ;DaGwL ljjfb lg/fs/0f ug{ • Unanimous Decision x'g]x'Fbf cfºgf] wf/0ffnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg ;lsg] • Bilateral Weakness x?nfO{ Multilateral / Regional Basis df alnof] kfg{ ;lsg] • ;'zf;g / bIftf clea[l4 • kf/jxg ;'ljwfsf] ;'lgZrLttf

  15. WTO;b:o x'g JoQm k|ltj4tfx? • s[lifhGo j:t'x? dfly yk eG;f/b/ nufpg kfpg] ;xdtL • s[lif If]qdf xfn %!∞ / # aif{ kZrft $@∞ tyf u}/ s[lif If]qdf xfn #&∞ / kl5 @$∞ df eG;f/ l;df+sg /xg] Joj:yf • eG;f/ jfx]s cGo z'Nsx? @ b]lv !) aif{ leqdf z'Godf emfg]{ ;xdtL • :jtGq Jofkf/nfO{ cg's'n x'g]u/L jt{dfg lgtL lgod / sfg'gx? cfjZos kl/dfh{g -$@ j6f sfg'g ;g\ @))^ sf] l8;]Da/ ;Dddf kl/dfh{g u/L ;Sg'kg]{ . • sl/j &) j6f ;]jf pkIf]q zt{ ;lxt v'Nnf ug]{ k|ltj4tf • ;]jf If]qdf k|s[lt cg'?k j}b]lzs nufgLsf] cg'kft %!–*)∞ sfod

  16. WTOsf] ;b:otf af6 k|fKt x'g ;Sg] kmfObfx? • lgof{t Jofkf/sf] ahf/ lj:tf/ • sRrf kbfy{sf] lgoldt pknJwtfaf6 x'g ;Sg] lgof{t a[l4 • Jofkf/ / ahf/df ljljlws/0f • ;'/lIft / ;'lglZrt Jofkf/af6 sfod x'g] cfly{s l:y/tf • t'ngfTds nfesf If]qx?sf] klxrfg • a}b]lzs nufgLdf a[l4 • k|ltikwf{Tds Ifdtf a[l4 • k|ljlw x:tfGt/0fsf] ;Defjgf • LDC n] kfpg] ;'ljwf k|fKt x'g] • kf/jxgsf] clwsf/n] j}b]lzs Jofkf/df ;'lglZrttf

  17. 8An"6Lcf]sf] ;Gbe{df r'gF}ltx¿ • s_ 8An"6Lcf] ;Demf}tfaf6 pAh]sf r'gf}ltx¿ • P;kLP; (SPS) ;Demf}tf • 6LaL6L (TBT) ;Demf}tf • l6«K; (TRIPS) ;Demf}tf • v_ cGo r'gF}ltx¿

  18. >[hgf x"g;Sg] ;d:ofx? • k]^]G^ ;DaGwL lgtL • h}ljs ljljwtfdflysf] cfqmd)f • vfB ;Ú/Iffsf] ;Gbe{ • s[ifsx?sf] lhljsf]sf] kIf • cf}ifwL pTkfbg ug]{ If]q • ;fgf tyf demf}nf pBf]u • c:j:Yo k|lt:kwf{ • lg/Gt/ a(\g] u}x| eG;f/ cj/f]w ( Non Tariff Barriers): h:t}MuÚ)F:t/ • s[lif IF]qdf ;+/If)fsf] k|Zg

  19. r'gf}tLx? -s_ gLlh If]qsf r'gf}tL • a:t' tyf ;]jf Jofkf/sf If]qdf a}b]lzs pTkfbgsf] u'0f:t/ tyf d'Nodf k|ltikwf{ cfpg g;s]sf] sf/0fn] cfGtl/s tyf jfXo ahf/df la:yflkt x'g] ;Defjgf • SPS (Sanitary / Phytosanitary) tyf TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Right) tyf cGo ;Demf}tfx?n] Nofpg ;Sg] Jof/f cj/f]w (2007 Jan 1 b]lv Trips k"0f{ ?kn] kfngf ug'{kg]{_ • Trips sf sf/0f Technology dxËf] x'g] • sRrf kbfy{sf] kx'Frdf sl7gfO{ -3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u If]q_ • bIf hgzlQm cfk"lt{

  20. r'gf}tLx? -v_ /fi6«sf r'gf}tLx? • tTsfn nfe gx'g] x‘+bf Jofkf/ tyf pBf]u If]qsf] sd rf;f] • Jofkf/ tyf pBf]u If]q ahf/af6 lj:yflkt x'g] ;Defjgf /f]Sg k|bfg ug'{kg]{ ;+/If0fsf] ljifo • WTO sf] ;b:o aGg JoQm k|ltj4tf cg'?k lgtL lgod tyf sfg'gx? kl/dfh{g ug{ ef]Ug' kg]{ r'gf}tL • ljBdfg k|zf;lgs sfo{ljlw / k|s[of ;/n kfg]{ r'gf}tL • WTO sf] ;b:o eP/ kfpg] cj;/sf] lgoldt d'Nof+sg / cj;/sf] vf]hL

  21. -s_ /fHon] c+ufNg'kg]{ • ;/sf/n] lglh If]q ;d]tsf] ;xefuLtfdf t'ngfTds nfesf If]qx? klxrfg ug]{ • WTO ;b:otfaf6 k|fKt cj;/ / r'gf}tLx?sf] lg/Gt/ cg'udg / d'Nof+sg / ;f]xL cg'?k ;/sf/L u}/ ;/sf/L tyf lglh If]qdf ;+/rgfut ;'wf/ • l;Ëf] gful/sf ;dfhsf] ;xof]u k|fKt ug]{ • dfgljo ;+;fwgsf] ljsf;df yk nufgL ug'{kg]{ • k|ljlw x:tfGt/0fsf nflu lglh If]qsf] ;xefuLtfdf yk nufgL / k|ofz • pBf]u / Jofkf/ If]qdf ljlQo If]qaf6 ;/n / ;'ne nufgLsf] jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{ • 5l/P/ /x]sf 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBdLx? lzk tyf snf / pTkfbgx? ljsl;t u/fpg /fHon] 5'§} nufgL sf]if v8f ug'{kg]{

  22. -v_ lglh If]q c+ufNg' kg]{ • Value Based Fair Trade sf] z'?jft / ljsf; • k|ltikwL{ Ifdtfdf clea[l4 • /fHo;+u lg/Gt/ ;xdlt / ;+3if{ • gful/s ;dfhaf6 ;xof]u k|fKt ug{ ;Sg'kg]{

  23. casf] af6f] • k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu dfgjLo ;+zfwgdf ljsf; -cfGtl/s / afx\o:t/df ;d]t_ • ljleGg 8An"6Lcf] ;Demf}tfn] lbPsf ;x'lnotx¿sf] clwstd pkof]u • 8An"6Lcf] ;b:otfsf qmddf g]kfnnfO{ k|fKt ;x'lnotx¿sf] clwstd pkof]u • 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]usf] ;+/If0fsf nflu Jofkf/ cj/f]w;DaGwL k|fjwfg nfu" ug]{ -h:t} M cg'bfg_ • k|fljlws ;xof]u tyf k'“hLut nufgLsf nflu :yfgLo 7"nf sDkgL÷ljb]zL nufgLstf{x¿;“u ;dGjo lj:tf/ ug]{ • ljrf/, lrGx, pTkfbg ljlw cflbsf] af}l4s ;DklQ clwsf/ ;'/lIFt ug{ k]6]G6 btf{ ug]{ • pTkfbgnfO{ pTkfbgs} ?kdf dfq xf]Og, a|FG8sf] ?kdf k|a4{g ug]{ -h:t} M a|FG8sf] cefjdf lrofn] ef]u]sf] ;d:of_ • ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx¿n] 3/]n', ;fgf tyf demf}nf pBf]usf] jf:tljstfaf/] kl/lrt u/fP/ ;xof]usf] lglDt …nlaÚ ug]{

  24. wGojfb